Against divorce.

Matthew 5.31-32; 19.3-12 = Mark 10.2-12 = Luke 16.18.

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Notes and quotes.

§ No agreements between Matthew and Luke against Mark count in these pericopes, as Matthew 5.31-32 = Luke 16.18 is a firm part of the double tradition, not the triple tradition.

§ Paul in 1 Corinthians 7.10-11:

Τοις δε γεγαμηκοσιν παραγγελλω, ουκ εγω αλλα ο κυριος, γυναικα απο ανδρος μη χωρισθηναι, εαν δε και χωρισθη, μενετω αγαμος η τω ανδρι καταλλαγητω, και ανδρα γυναικα μη αφιεναι.

But to those who have married I instruct, not I but the Lord, that the wife not depart from the husband, but, if she does depart, let her remain unmarried or let her reconcile with the husband, and that the man not put the wife away.

One of the sayings of Jesus outside the four canonical gospels. Contrast this dominical instruction with 1 Corinthians 7.12-13, 25, in which Paul disclaims any explicit teaching from the Lord:

Τοις δε λοιποις λεγω εγω, ουχ ο κυριος· Ει τις αδελφος γυναικα εχει απιστον, και αυτη συνευδοκει οικειν μετ αυτου, μη αφιετω αυτην· και γυνη ει τις εχει ανδρα απιστον, και ουτος συνευδοκει οικειν μετ αυτης, μη αφιετω τον ανδρα.

But to the rest I say, not the Lord: If any brother has an unbelieving wife, and she consents to house with him, let him not send her away. And the wife, if any has an unbelieving husband, and he consents to house with her, let her not send away the husband.

Περι δε των παρθενων επιταγην κυριου ουκ εχω, γνωμην δε διδωμι ως ηλεημενος υπο κυριου πιστος ειναι.

But concerning maidens an order of the Lord I do not have, but I give an opinion as one who, having been shown mercy by the Lord, is faithful.

§ Barnabas 19.4a:

Ου πορνευσεις, ου μοιχευσεις, ου παιδοφθορησεις. ου μη σου ο λογος του θεου εξελθη εν ακαθαρσια τινων. ου λημψη προσωπον ελεγξαι τινα επι παραπτωματι.

Do not fornicate, do not commit adultery, do not commit sodomy. May the word of God go out from you among the uncleanness of any. Do not respect persons in the reproving of any for transgression.

§ The Shepherd of Hermas, Mandate 4.1.4-10:

Λεγω αυτω· Κυριε, επιτρεψον μοι ολιγα ερωτησαι σε. Λεγε, φησιν. Κυριε, φημι, ει γυναικα εχη τις πιστην εν κυριω και ταυτην ευρη εν μοιχεια τινι, αρα αματανει ο ανηρ συνζων μετ αυτης; Αχρι της αγονοις, φησιν, ουχ αμαρτανει, εαν δε γνω ο ανηρ την αμαρτιαν αυτης και μη μετανοηση η γυνη, αλλ επιμενη τη πορνεια αυτης και συνζη ο ανηρ μετ αυτης, ενοχος γινεται της αμαρτιας αυτης και κοινωνος της μοιχειας αυτης. Τι ουν, φημι, κυριε, ποιηση ο ανηρ, εαν επιμεινη τω παθει τουτω η γυνη; Απολυσατω, φησιν, αυτην και ο ανηρ εφ εαυτω μενετω. εαν δε απολυσας την γυναικα ετεραν γαμηση, και αυτος μοιχαται. Εαν ουν, φημι, κυριε, μετα το απολυθηναι την γυναικα μετανοηση η γυνη και θεληση επι τον εαυτης ανδρα υποστρεψαι, ου παραδεχθησεται; Και μην, φησιν, εαν μη παραδεξηται αυτην ο ανη, αμαρτανει και μεγαλην αμαρτιαν εαυτω επιπαται, αλλα δει παραδεχθηναι τον ημαρτηκοτα και μετανοουντα, μη επι πολυ δε, τοις γαρ δουλοις του θεου μετανοια εστιν μια. δια την μετανοιαν ουν ου οφειλει γαμειν ο ανηρ. αυτη η πραξις επι γυναικι και ανδρι κειται. ου μονον, φησιν, μοιχεια εστιν εαν τις την σαρκα αυτου μιανη, αλλα και ος αν τα ομοιωματα ποιη τοις εθνεσιν μοιχαται. ωστε και εν τοις τοιουτοις εργοις εαν εμμενη τις και μη μετανοη, απεχου απ αυτου και μη συνζηθι αυτω ει δε μη, και συ μετοχος ει της αμαρτιας αυτου. δια τουτο προσεταγη υμιν εφ εαυτοις μενειν, ειτε ανηρ ειτε γυνη, δυνατια γαρ ε τοις τοιουτοις μετανοια ειναι.

I say to him: Lord, permit me to ask a few more things of you. Speak, he says. Lord, I say, if a certain man has a faithful wife in the Lord, and he finds her in a certain act of adultery, does the man sin living together with her? While he is ignorant, he says, he does not sin, but if the man knows her sin and the wife does not repent, but remains in her fornication and the man lives together with her, he is accountable for her sin and is a partaker of her adultery. What then, lord, I say, shall the man do, if the wife remains in this suffering? Let him release her, he says, and the man remain by himself, but if having released the wife he should marry another, he likewise commits adultery. If then, lord, I say, the wife after being released should repent, and the wife wish to return to her husband, shall she not be received back? Indeed, he says, if the husband does not receive her back he sins and brings great sin upon himself, but the one who has sinned and repented must be received, but not many times, for there is one repentance for the servants of God. For the sake of repentance therefore the husband ought not to marry. This practice lies for the wife and the husband. Not only, he says, is it adultery if someone should pollute his flesh, but also whoever does things like the gentiles do commits adultery, so that also if someone remains in works such as these and does not repent, depart from him and do not live together with him, or else you too are a sharer of his sin. On account of this you were commanded to remain by yourself, whether husband or wife, for from such cases repentance is able to be.

One of the sayings of Jesus outside the four canonical gospels.

§ Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans 6.1a:

Μηδεις πλανασθω. και τα επουρανια και η δοξα των αγγελων και οι αρχοντες ορατοι τε και αορατοι, εαν μη πιστευσωσιν εις το αιμα Χριστου, κακεινοις κρισις εστιν. ο χωρων χωρειτω.

Let no one be deceived. Even the heavenlies and the glory of angels and the rulers both visible and invisible, unless they believe upon the blood of Christ, there is a judgment even for them. Let him that accepts accept.

§ 2 Clement 12.2:

Επερωτηθεις γαρ αυτος ο κυριος υπο τινος ποτε ηξει αυτου η βασιλεια ειπεν· Οταν εσται τα δυο εν, και το εξω ως το εσω, και το αρσεν μετα της θηλειας ουτε αρσεν ουτε θηλυ.

For when the Lord himself was asked by someone when his kingdom would come he said: When the two are one, and the outside as the inside, and the male with the female neither male nor female.

Compare this passage with the series of similar dominical statements in the gospel of the Egyptians.

§ Justin Martyr, Apology 1.15.1-4:

Περι μεν ουν σωφροσυνης τοσουτον ειπεν· Ος αν εμβλεφη γυναικι προς το επιθυμησαι αυτης ηδη εμοιχευσι τη καρδια παρα τω θεω. και· Ει ο οφθαλμος σου ο δεξιος σκανδαλιζει σε, εκκοψον αυτον· συμφερει γαρ σοι μονοφθαλμον εισελθειν εις την βασιλειαν των ουρανων η μετα των δυο πεμφθηναι εις το αιωνιον πυρ. και· ος γαμει απολελυμενην αφ ετερου ανδρος μοιχαται. και· Εισιν τινες οιτινες ευνουχισθησαν υπο των ανθρωπων, εισι δε οι εγεννηθησαν ευνουχοι, εισι δε οι ευνουχισαν εαυτους δια την βασιλειαν των ουρανων· πλην ου παντες τουτο χωρουσιν.

About modesty, therefore, he said this: Whoever looks at a woman to desire her already commits adultery in the heart before God. And: If your right eye scandalizes you, cut it out, for it is better for you to go into the kingdom of the heavens one-eyed than to be sent with two eyes into the eternal fire. And: Whoever marries a woman divorced from another man commits adultery. And: There are some who were made eunuchs by men, and there are others who were born eunuchs, and there are others who made themselves eunuchs on account of the kingdom of the heavens. But not all accept this.

§ From Theophilus of Antioch, To Autolycus 3.13:

Η δε ευαγγελιος φωνη επιτατικωτερον διδασκει περι αγνειας, λεγουσα· Πας ο ιδων γυναικα αλλοτριαν προς το επιθυμησαι αυτην ηδη εμοιχευσεν αυτην εν τη καρδια αυτου. και ο γαμων, φησιν, απολελυμενην απο ανδρος μοιχευει, και ος απολυει γυναικα παρεκτος λογου πορνειας ποιει αυτην μοιχευθηναι.

And the evangelical voice teaches more urgently concerning chastity, saying: Every one who looks upon another woman to desire her has already committed adultery with her in his heart. And the one who marries, it says, a woman divorced from the man commits adultery, and whoever divorces his wife except by reason of fornication makes her commit adultery.