The commission of the twelve.

Matthew 10.1-4 = Mark 3.13-19 = Luke 6.12-16.

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Notes and quotes.

§ I note the following agreements between Matthew and Luke against Mark:

  1. Matthew 10.2 has the partitive genitive των (of the). Luke 6.13 has the de facto partitive απ αυτων (from among them). Mark 3.14 has no partitive.
  2. Matthew 10.2 has the relative pronoun ο (who). Luke 6.14 has the relative pronoun ον (whom). Mark 3.16 has no relative pronoun.
  3. Matthew 10.2 has Ανδρεας, ο αδελφος αυτου (Andrew, his brother, in the nominative) right after mention of Peter. Luke 6.14 has Ανδρεαν, τον αδελφον αυτου (Andrew, his brother, in the accusative) right after mention of Peter. Mark has only Ανδρεαν (Andrew, in the accusative), postponed till after mention of James and John.

§ Acts 1.13:

Και οτε εισηλθον, εις το υπερωον ανεβησαν ου ησαν καταμενοντες, ο τε Πετρος και Ιωαννης και Ιακωβος και Ανδρεας, Φιλιππος και Θωμας, Βαρθολομαιος και Μαθθαιος, Ιακωβος Αλφαιου και Σιμων ο ζηλωτης και Ιουδας Ιακωβου.

And, when they went in, they ascended to the upper room where they were remaining, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James of Alphaeus and Simon the zealot and Jude of James.

§ From Epiphanius, Panarion 30.13, writing of the Ebionite gospel:

Εν τω γουν παρ αυτοις ευαγγελιω κατα Ματθαιον ονομαζομενω, ουχ ολω δε πληρεστατω, αλλα νενοθευμενω και ηκρωτηριασμενω, Εβραικον δε τουτο καλουσιν, εμφερεται, οτι Εγενετο τις ανηρ ονοματι Ιησους, και αυτος ως ετων τριακοντα, ος εξελεξατο ημας. και ελθων εις Καφαρναουμ εισηλθεν εις την οικιαν Σιμωνος του επικληθεντος Πετρου, και ανοιξας το στομα αυτου ειπε· Παρερχομενος παρα την λιμνην Τιβεριαδος εξελεξαμην Ιωαννην και Ιακωβον υιους Ζεβεδαιου, και Σιμωνα, και Ανδρεαν, και Θαδδαιον, και Σιμωνα τον Ζηλωτην, και Ιουδαν τον Ισκαριωτην, και σε τον Ματθαιον καθεζομενον επι του τελωνιου εκαλεσα, και ηκολουθησας μοι. υμας ουν βουλομαι ειναι δεκαδυο αποστολους, εις μαρτυριον του Ισραηλ.

In the gospel among them named according to Matthew, but not all very complete, but illegitimized and adulterated, but they call it the Hebraic [gospel], it states: There was a certain man, Jesus by name, and he himself was about thirty years old, who elected us. And having come to Capernaum he went into the house of Simon, nicknamed Peter, and he opened his mouth and said: While passing by the lake of Tiberias I elected John and Jacob, the sons of Zebedee, and Simon, and Andrew, and Thaddeus, and Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, and you, Matthew, I called while you were sitting in the toll-booth, and you followed me. I wish, therefore, for you to be twelve apostles as a testimony of Israel.

§ Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho 100.4:

Και γαρ υιον θεου κατα την του πατρος αυτου αποκαλυψιν επιγνοντα αυτον ενα των μαθητων αυτου, Σιμωνα προτερον καλουμενον, επωνομασε Πετρον, και υιον θεου γεγραμμενον αυτον εν τοις απομνημονευμασι των αποστολων αυτου εχοντες και υιον αυτον λεγοντες νενοηκαμεν οντα και προ παντων ποιηματων απο του πατρος δυναμει αυτου και βουλη προελθοντα, ος και σοφια κι ημερα και ανατολη και μαχαιρα και λιθος και ραβδος και Ιακωβ και Ισραηλ κατ αλλον και αλλον τροπον εν τοις των προφητων λογοις προσηγορευται, και δια της παρθενου ανθρωπον γεγονεναι, ινα και δι ης οδου η απο του οφεως παρακοη την αρχην ελαβε, δια ταυτης της οδου και καταλυσιν λαβη.

For he named one of his disciples, who was called Simon, Peter, since he recognized him as the son of God according to the revelation of his father, and, having it written in the memoirs of his apostles that he is the son of God, and saying that he is the son, we have understood that he also went forth before all things done from the father by his power and will, who is addressed in the words of the prophets in one way or another as wisdom, and day, and east, and sword, and stone, and staff, and Jacob, and Israel; and that through the virgin he became man in order that, through the same way in which the disobedience from the serpent received its beginning, through this way it might also receive its destruction.

Dialogue with Trypho 106.3:

Και το ειπειν μετωνομακεναι αυτον Πετρον ενα των αποστολων, και γεγραφθαι εν τοις απομνημονευμασιν αυτου γεγενημενον και τουτο, μετα του και αλλους δυο αδελφους, υιους Ζεβεδαιου οντας, επωνομακεναι ονοματι του βοανεργες, ο εστιν υιοι βροντης, σημαντικον ην του αυτον εκεινον ειναι, δι ου και το επωνυμον Ιακωβ τω Ισραηλ επικληθεντι εδοθη και τω Αυση ονομα Ιησους επεκληθη, δι ου ονοματος και εισηχθη εις την επηγγελμενην τοις πατριαρχαις γην ο περιλειφθεις απο των απ Αιγυπτου εξελθοντων λαος.

And when it says that he changed the name of one of the apostles to Peter, and written in his memoirs that this also happened, with the nicknaming of others as well, two brothers, who were the sons of Zebedee, with the name of Boanerges, that is sons of thunder, this was a sign that it was that very same man through whom also the nickname of Jacob was given to be called Israel, and Hoshea was called Joshua by name, through whose name also the people who remained from those who had come out of Egypt went into the land promised to the patriarchs.

§ Refer to my page on the twelve disciples for a table coordinating the four canonical lists of the twelve.