The crucifixion of Jesus.

Matthew 27.33-44 = Mark 15.22-32 = Luke 23.32-43  (John 19.17b-24).

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Notes and quotes.

§ I note the following agreements between Matthew and Luke against Mark:

  1. Matthew 27.33 has ελθοντες (coming), and Luke 23.33 has ηλθον (came), but Mark 15.22 has φερουσιν (they bore or brought).
  2. Matthew 27.35 has the aorist participle σταυρωσαντες (having crucified). Luke 23.33 has the aorist indicative εσταυρωσαν (they crucified). Mark 15.24 has the present indicative σταυρουσιν (they crucify).
  3. Matthew 27.37 has αυτου (of him), and Luke 23.38 has αυτω (to him), but Mark 15.26 has no corresponding pronoun.
  4. Matthew 27.42 and Luke 23.35 both have εστιν (is) where Mark 15.32 has no corresponding verb of being.
  5. Matthew 15.37 and Luke 23.38 both use ουτος (this man) in the titulus over Jesus on the cross; Mark 15.26 lacks it.
  6. Matthew 27.44 and Luke 23.39 both use δε (but or and) where Mark 15.32 uses και (and). A rather common agreement.

§ Acts 7.60 on the death of Stephen:

Θεις δε τα γονατα εκραξεν φωνη μεγαλη· Κυριε, μη στησης αυτοις ταυτην την αμαρτιαν. και τουτο ειπων εκοιμηθη.

But he dropped to his knees and shouted out with a great voice: Lord, do not let this sin stand against them! And after saying this he fell asleep.

§ There is a very interesting Roman graffito extant from late century I depicting what a pagan might have thought of worshipping a crucified man as a god.

§ Barnabas 6.6:

Τι ουν λεγει παλιν ο προφητης; Περιεσχεν με συναγωγη πονηρευομενων, εκυκλωσαν με ωσει μελισσαι κηριον, και· Επι τον ιματισμον μου εβαλον κληρον.

What therefore does the prophet say again? The synagogue of those who do evil set about me; they encircled me just as bees about a comb; and: Upon my garment they cast a lot.

Barnabas 7.3-11:

Αλλα και σταυρωθεις εποτιζετο οξει και χολη. ακουσατε πως περι τουτου πεφανερωκαν οι ιερεις του ναου· γεγραμμενης εντολης· Ος αν μη νηστευση την νηστειαν θανατω εξολεθρευθησεται, ενετειλατο κυριος, επει και αυτος υπερ των ημετερων αμαρτιων εμελλεν το σκευος του πνευματιος προσφερειν θυσιαν, ινα και ο τυπος ο γενομενος επι Ισαακ του προσενεχθεντος επι το θυσιαστηριον τελεσθη.

But having been crucified he was given to drink vinegar and gall. Hear how concerning this the priests of the temple have made [things] apparent. Since a commandment is written: Whoever shall not fast [during] the fast shall be utterly destroyed by death, the Lord commanded, since he himself was also about to offer forth the vessel of his spirit as a sacrifice on behalf of our sins, that the type also which happened in the time when Isaac was offered forth upon the sacrificial alter should be fulfilled.

Τι ουν λεγει εν τω προφητη; Και φαγετωσαν εκ του τραγου του προσφερομενου τη νηστεια υπερ πασων των αμαρτιων, προσεχετε ακριβως, και φαγετωσαν οι ιερεις μονοι παντες το εντερον απλυτον μετα οξους.

What therefore does he say in the prophet? And let them eat from the goat which is offered forth at the fast on behalf of all their sins, attend accurately, and let all the priests alone eat the entrails unwashed with vinegar.

Προς τι; επειδη εμε, υπερ αμαρτιων μελλοντα του λαου μου του καινου προσφερειν την σαρκα μου, μελλετε ποτιζειν χολην μετα οξους, φαγετε υμεις μονοι, του λαου νηστευοντος και κοπτομενου επι σακκου και σποδου, ινα δειξη οτι δει αυτον παθειν υπ αυτων.

For what [purpose]? Since you are about to give me, who am about to offer forth my flesh on behalf of the sins of my new people, gall with vinegar to drink, you yourselves eat alone, while the people fast and beat [their breasts] with sackcloth and ashes, that he might show that he must suffer by them.

Α ενετειλατο προσεχετε· Λαβετε δυο τραγους καλους και ομοιους και προσενεγκατε, και λαβετω ο ιερευς τον ενα εις ολοκαυτωμα υπερ αμαρτιων.

Attend to the things which he commanded: Take two goats, good and alike, and offer them forth, and let the priest take the one as a holocaust* on behalf of sins.

* Or burnt offering.

Τον δε ενα τι ποιησωσιν; επικαταρατος, φησιν, ο εις. προσεχετε πως ο τυπος του Ιησου φανερουται.

But the [other] one, what shall they do with it? The one is accursed, he says. Attend how the type of Jesus is revealed.

Και εμπτυσατε παντες και κατακεντησατε και περιθετε το εριον το κοκκινον περι την κεφαλην αυτου, και ουτως εις ερημον βληθητω. και οταν γενηται ουτως, αγει ο βασταζων τον τραγον εις την ερημον και αφαιρει το εριον και επιτιθησιν αυτο επι φρυγανον το λεγομενον ραχη{λ}, ου και τους βλαστους ειωθαμεν τρωγειν εν τη χωρα ευρισκοντες· ουτω μονης της ραχης οι καρποι γλυκεις εισιν.

And spit upon it, all of you, and goad it and place the scarlet wool around its head, and thus let it be cast into the desert. And, when it happens thus, he who takes the goat into the desert leads it and takes away the wool and places it upon the branch called rachel,1 of which we are also accustomed to eating the shoots when we find them in the country. Of the briar2 alone are the fruits thus sweet.

1 Greek ραχη{λ}.
2 Greek της ραχης.

Τι ουν τουτο εστιν; προσεχετε· Τον μεν ενα επι το θυσιαστηριον, τον δε ενα επικαταρατον, και οτι τον επικαταρατον εστεφανωμενον. επειδη οψονται αυτον τοτε τη ημερα τον ποδηρη εχοντα τον κοκκινον περι την σαρκα και ερουσιν· Ουχ ουτος εστιν ον ποτε ημεις εσταυρωσαμεν και εξουθενησαμεν εμπτυσαντες; αληθως ουτος ην ο τοτε λεγων εαυτον υιον του θεου ειναι.

What therefore is [the meaning of] this? Attend: The one is upon the altar, and the other is accursed, and the the accursed one is crowned. When they shall see him then, on that day, having the scarlet robe around his flesh, and shall say: Is this not the one whom we once crucified and counted as nothing and spat upon? Truly this was the one who was then saying that he himself was the son of God.

Πως γαρ ομοιος εκεινω; εις τουτο ομοιους τους τραγους, καλους, ισους, ινα οταν ιδωσιν αυτον τοτε ερχομενον εκπλαγωσιν επι τη ομοιοτητι του τραγου. ουκουν ιδε τον τυπον του μελλοντος πασχειν Ιησου.

For how is that man like the goat? For this [reason] it says the goats shall be alike, good, and identical, so that when they shall see him then coming they may be astonished at the likeness of the goat. Behold therefore the type of Jesus who was about to suffer.

Τι δε οτι το εριον εις μεσον των ακανθων τιθεασιν; τυπος εστιν του Ιησου τη εκκλησια θεμενος, οτι ος εαν θελη το εριον αραι το κοκκινον δει αυτον πολλα παθειν δια το ειναι φοβεραν την ακανθαν και θλιβεντα κυριευσαι αυτου. ουτω, φησιν, οι θελοντες με ιδειν και αψασθαι μου της βασιλειας οφειλουσιν θλιβεντες και παθοντες λαβειν με.

But why is it that they place the wool in the midst of the thorns? It is a type of Jesus put in place for the church, since whoever wishes to take the scarlet wool must suffer many things on account that the thorn is fearful and become its lord through tribulation. Thus, he says, those who wish to see me and to attain unto my kingdom are indebted to take [hold of] me through tribulation and suffering.

§ Peter 4.10-5.17:

Και ηνεγκον δυο κακουργους και εσταυρωσαν ανα μεσον αυτων τον κυριον, αυτος δε εσιωπα ως μηδενα πονον εχων. και οτε ωρθωσαν τον σταυρον επεγραψαν οτι, Ουτος εστιν ο βασιλευς του Ισραηλ. και τεθεικοτες τα ενδυματα εμπροσθεν αυτου διεμερισαντο, και λαχμον εβαλον επ αυτοις. εις δε τις των κακουργων εκεινων ωνειδισεν αυτους λεγων· Ημεις δια τα κακα α εποιησαμεν ουτω πεπονθαμεν, ουτος δε σωτηρ γενομενος των ανθρωπων τι ηδικησεν υμας; και αγανακτησαντες επ αυτω εκελευσαν ινα μη σκελοκοπηθη, οπως βασανιζομενος αποθανοι.

And they brought two evilworkers and crucified the Lord in their midst, but he himself was silent as if having no pain. And when they straightened up the cross they engraved: This is the king of Israel. And having placed his clothes before him they divided them, and cast a lot for them. But one of those evilworkers rebuked them saying: We have suffered thus on account of the evil things that we have done, but this man who is the savior of men, what injustice has he done to you? And, having become indignent with him, they commanded that he not be leg-broken, so that he might die tormented.

Ην δε μεσημβρια, και σκοτος κατεσχε πασαν την Ιουδαιαν. και εθορυβουντο, και ηγωνιων μηποτε ο ηλιος εδυ επειδη ετι εζη· γεγραπται αυτοις ηλιον μη δυναι επι πεφονευμενω. και τις αυτων ειπεν· Ποτισατε αυτον χολην μετα οξους. και κερασαντες εποτισαν. και επληρωσαν παντα, και ετελειωσαν κατα της κεφαλης αυτων τα αμαρτηματα.

And it was midday, and darkness held all Judea fast. And they were afraid and agonized lest the sun should set while he still lived. It is written for them that the sun is not to set upon one who has been executed. And one of them said: Give him gall and vinegar to drink. And having mixed it they gave it to drink. And they fulfilled all things, and completed the sins upon their head.

§ From Haimo, commentary II, On Isaiah 53.12, writing of the words of Jesus on the cross (father, forgive them) in connection with the gospel of the Nazarenes:

Sicut enim in evangelio Nazarenorum habetur, ad hanc vocem domini multa milia Iudaeorum adstantium circa crucem crediderunt.

As it has it in the gospel of the Nazarenes, at this voice of the Lord many thousands of Jews standing around the cross came to faith.

Compare this report to one from the epistle of Jerome to Hedibia (epistle 120):

In tantum autem amavit Hierusalem dominus ut fleret eam et plangeret et pendens in cruce loqueretur: Pater, ignosce eis, quod enim faciunt nesciunt. itaque impetravit quod petierat, multaque statim de Iudaeis milia crediderunt, et usque ad quadragesimum secundum annum datum est tempus paenitentiae.

But by so much did the Lord love Jerusalem that he wept for it and beat his chest, and while hanging on the cross he said: Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. And thus he obtained what he had requested, and many thousands from the Jews came to faith, and a time of penitence was given up until the forty-second year.

From the History of the Passion of the Lord, folio 44 recto:

Legitur in e[v]angelio Nazareorum quod ludei appreciaverunt quattuor milites ad flagellandum dominum tam dure usque ad effusionem sanguinis de toto corpore. eosdem eciam milites appreciaverunt quod ipsum crucifix[ere]nt sicut dicitur Io{hannes} 19.

It is read in the gospel of the Nazaraeans that the gladiators appropriated four soldiers to scourge the Lord hard enough to [cause] an effusion of blood from his entire body. They appropriated those same soldiers still to crucify him just as it is said in Jo{hn} 19.

From the History of the Passion of the Lord, folio 55 recto:

Pater ignosce eis, non enim sciunt quid faciunt. et nota quod in e[v]angelio Nazareorum legitur quod ad virtuosam istam Christi oracionem VIII milia conversi sunt postea ad fidem. scilicet tria milia in die pentecostes.

Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they do. And note that in the gospel of the Nazaraeans it is read that at this virtuous prayer of Christ eight thousand were afterward converted to the faith. There were to be sure three thousand on the day of Pentecost.

§ Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho 97.3b:

Οτε γαρ εσταυρωσαν αυτον, εμπησσοντες τους ηλους τας χειρας και τους ποδας αυτου ωρυξαν, και οι σταυρωσαντες αυτον εμερισαν τα ιματια αυτου εαυτοις, λαχμον βαλλοντες εκαστος κατα την του κληρου επιβολην ο εκλεξασθαι εβεβουλητο.

For when they crucified him, driving in the nails, they pierced his hands and feet, and those who had crucified him divided his garments among themselves, each casting a lot for what he wanted to choose according to the decision of the lot.

Dialogue 101.3b:

Οι γαρ θεωρουντες αυτον εσταυρωμενον και κεφαλας εκαστος εκινουν και τα χειλη διεστρεφον, και τοις μυξωτηρσιν εν αλληλοις διαρρινουντες ελεγον ειρωνευομενοι ταυτα α και εν τοις απομνημονευμασι των αποστολων αυτου γεγραπται· Υιον θεου εαυτον ελεγε· καταβας περιπατειτω. σωσατω αυτον ο θεος.

For those who saw him crucified both moved their heads, each of them, and turned over their lips, and twisting their noses to each other said these things which are written in the memoirs of his apostles, mocking him: He said that he was the son of God; let him descend and walk around. Let God save him.

Dialogue 104.1b-2:

...οπερ και εν τοις απομνημονευμασι των αποστολων αυτου γεγραπται γενομενον. και οτι μετα το σταυρωθηναι αυτον εμερισαν εαυτοις οι σταυρωσαντες αυτον τα ιματια αυτου εδηλωσα.

...which* is also written as having happened in the memoirs of his apostles. And I have shown that after he was crucified those who had crucified him divided his garments among themselves.

* Id est, the prophecy of Psalm 22.15b-18.

Apology 1.35.8-9:

Και μετα το σταυρωσαι αυτον εβαλον κληρον επι τον ιματισμον αυτου, και εμερισαντο εαυτοις οι σταυρωσαντες αυτον. και ταυτα οτι γεγονε δυνασθε μαθειν εκ των επι Ποντιου Πιλατου γενομενων ακτων.

And after he was crucified they cast lots for his clothing, and those who had crucified him divided them. And that these things came to pass you can learn from the Acts made in the time of Pontius Pilate.

Apology 1.38.7-8:

Ατινα παντα οτι γεγονεν υπο των Ιουδαιων τω Χριστω μαθειν δυνασθε. σταυρωθεντος γαρ αυτου εξεστρεφον τα χειλη και εκινουν τας κεφαλας, λεγοντες· Ο νεκρους ανεγειρας ρυσασθω εαυτον.

That all these things* happened to Christ by the Jews you can learn. For when he was crucified they turned out their lips and moved their heads, saying: Let him who raised up the dead rescue himself.

* Id est, the prophecies of Isaiah 65.2; 50.6; Psalm 22.18; 3.5; 22.7.

§ Tertullian, Apology 21.24a:

Ea omnia super Christo Pilatus, et ipse iam pro sua conscientia Christianus, Caesari tunc Tiberio nuntiavit.

All these things* concerning Christ Pilate, even himself already a Christian in his own conscience, announced to Tiberius, who was then Caesar.

* Id est, from context, his ministry, death, resurrection, and ascension.