The death of Jesus.
Matthew 27.45-54 = Mark 15.33-39 = Luke 23.44-48 (John 19.28-30).
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Notes and quotes.
§ I count the following agreements between Matthew and Luke against Mark:
- Matthew 27.50 and Luke 23.46 both have the dative
μεγαλη (a great voice)
where Mark 15.37 has the accusative
- Matthew 27.50 and Luke 23.46 agree in having
πνευμα (the spirit),
while both Mark 15.37 and Luke 23.46 have the cognate εξεπνευσεν (expired).
- Matthew 27.54 has εκατονταρχος
(captain of a hundred). Luke 23.47 has εκατονταρχης
(same translation). Mark 15.39 has the synonymous κεντυριων
- Matthew 27.54 has the general τα
(the things that happened) and Luke 23.47 likewise has
the general το
(the thing that happened or what happened).
Mark 15.39 has the more specific οτι
(that he thus expired).
§ The Old Latin codex
itg1 has the following interesting textual variant after Luke 23.48:
...dicentes: Vae nobis quae facta sunt
hodie propter peccata nostra, adpropinquavit enim desolatio
...saying: Woe to us because of the things
that have been done today on account of our sins, for the desolation
of Jerusalem has drawn near.
Confer Peter 7.25.
§ Acts 7.59:
And they were stoning Stephen, who called out
and said: Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!
§ Refer to my notes on the crucifixion for
the relevant passage(s) from the epistle
to the Magnesians 9.2:
How shall we be able to live apart from him,
whose disciples even the prophets, being in the spirit, expected as
teacher? And on this account he whom they righteously awaited, when he
was present, raised them from the dead.
- And it was midday, and darkness held all Judea fast.
And they were afraid and agonized lest the sun should set
while he still lived. It is written for them that the sun is
not to set upon one who has been executed.
- And one of them said: Give him gall and vinegar to drink.
And having mixed it they gave it to drink.
- And they fulfilled all things, and completed the sins upon
- But many went about with lamps, thinking that it was night,
and they fell.
- And the Lord shouted out saying: My power, power, you have
forsaken me! And, having said that, he was taken up.
- And at that same hour the curtain of the temple of
Jerusalem was torn in two.
- And then they pulled out the nails from the hands of the
Lord and placed him upon the earth. And all the earth quaked
and there was great fear.
- Then the sun shone and it was found to be the ninth hour.
- But the Jews rejoiced and gave his body to Joseph so that
he might bury it, since he had seen as many good things as he
- And having taken the Lord he bathed him and wrapped him
in a shroud and bore him unto his own sepulcher, called the
garden of Joseph.
- Then the Jews and the elders and the priests, knowing what
kind of evil they had done to themselves, began to beat and say:
Woe for our sins! The judgment and the end of Jerusalem are at
- But I with my companions grieved, and wounded in our
reasoning we hid. For we were being sought by them as evilworkers
and as wishing to burn the sanctuary.
- And on top of all these things we were fasting, and we sat
mourning and weeping night and day until the sabbath.
§ From Jerome,
On Matthew 4, commentary
on Matthew 27.51, writing of the gospel
according to the Hebrews:
In evangelio cuius saepe facimus mentionem superliminare templi
infinitae magnitudinis fractum esse atque divisum legimus.
In the gospel of which we often make mention we read that a
lintel of the temple of infinite magnitude was broken and divided.
From the epistle of Jerome to Hedibia, epistle 120:
In evangelio autem quod Hebraicis litteris scriptum est legimus,
non velum templi scissum, sed superliminare templi mirae magnitudinis
But in the gospel which is written with Hebraic letters we read,
not that the veil of the temple was rent, but that the lintel of the temple, of marvelous
From Haimo, commentary II, On Isaiah 53.12,
writing of the words of Jesus on the cross: Father, forgive them:
Sicut enim in evangelio Nazarenorum habetur, ad hanc vocem
domini multa milia Iudaeorum adstantium circa crucem crediderunt.
As it has it in the gospel of the Nazarenes, at this voice
of the Lord many thousands of Jews standing around the cross came to faith.
Compare this report to one from the epistle of Jerome to Hedibia,
In tantum autem amavit Hierusalem dominus ut fleret eam et
plangeret et pendens in cruce loqueretur: Pater, ignosce eis, quod enim faciunt nesciunt.
itaque impetravit quod petierat, multaque statim de Iudaeis milia crediderunt, et usque
ad quadragesimum secundum annum datum est tempus paenitentiae.
But by so much did the Lord love Jerusalem that he wept for it
and beat his chest, and while hanging on the cross he said: Father, forgive them, for
they know not what they do. And thus he obtained what he had requested, and many thousands
from the Jews came to faith, and a time of penitence was given up until the forty-second
From the History of the Passion of the
Lord, folio 65 recto, concerning the signs at the death of the Lord:
Item in e[v]angelio Nazareorum legitur superliminare templi
infinite magnitudinis in morte Christi scissum. idem dicit Iosephus et addit quod audite sunt
voces horribiles in aere dicentes: Transeamus ab hiis sedibus.
Likewise in the gospel of the Nazaraeans it is read that
a lintel of the temple of infinite magnitude was broken at the death of Christ. Josephus says
the same thing and adds that horrible voices were heard in the air saying: Let us leave
§ From Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies 5.8.23, writing
of the Naassenes:
And again he says: The dead are escaping
out of the tombs.
Martyr, Dialogue with
And when I had said these words I continued:
Therefore I will show you, through the words which I shall again exegete,
that the whole psalm* spoke thus to Christ. That which therefore is said
straightway: God, my God, attend to me: On what account did you abandon me?
This foretold from above that which was about to be said by Christ. For after
he had been crucified he said: God, God, on what account did you abandon
* Psalm 21.
For when he also was delivering up his spirit
upon the cross he said: Father, into your hands I place my spirit,
as I learned even this also from the memoirs.
§ Julius Africanus asserts that
the historian Thallus
wrote about the strange natural phenomena surrounding the death
of Jesus as recorded in the gospels. Other church fathers assert
that the historian Phlegon
also wrote about those events.
§ Passion sources as gleaned from
J. D. Crossan in The Cross that Spoke:
Psalm 2.1-2; 22.
Joshua 8, 10.
Psalm 26.4-6; 73.13.
Isaiah 3.9-10; 41.21; 50.6-7; 53.12; 58.2; 59.10; 65.2.
Zechariah 3.1-5; 12.10-12; 14.7.
Sibylline Oracles 1.360-382; 8.285-317.
Epistle of Barnabas 5-7.
Ignatius, Smyrnaeans 1-3; Magnesians 9, 11; Trallians 9-10.
Shepherd of Hermas, Similitude 9.
Justin Martyr, Apology 1.40, 66-67,
70, 72, 111-112, 144-145, 192-193, 229;
Dialogue 72, 103.
Irenaeus, Demonstration of the Apostolic
Preaching 74, 77-78.
Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah
Tertullian, Against Marcion 3.7.7; 4.42.2;
On the Resurrection of the Flesh 20.4.
Didascalia Apostolorum 5.19.4-5.
Lactantius, Divine Institutes 4.19.
Dialogue of Adamantius 5.1.
Odes of Solomon 17.9-16; 22.1-10; 42.3-20.
Mark 9.2-13; 14.32-16.8; [16.9-20].
Matthew 17.1-13; 26.36-28.20.
Luke 9.28-36; 22.39-24.53.
Acts 1; 4.8-12, 25-28; 13.27-29.
Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 18.63-64.
Tacitus, Annals 15.44.
Acts of Peter 8.
Acts of Thomas 31-32.
Acts of Andrew and Matthias 26.
Acts of John 87-105.
Martyrdom of Polycarp 6.2; 21.1.
Philo, Flaccus 32-34,
36-39 [the mocking of Carabas].