The death of Jesus.

Matthew 27.45-54 = Mark 15.33-39 = Luke 23.44-48  (John 19.28-30).

Current mode: View.

Notes and quotes.

§ I count the following agreements between Matthew and Luke against Mark:

  1. Matthew 27.50 and Luke 23.46 both have the dative φωνη μεγαλη (a great voice) where Mark 15.37 has the accusative φωνην μεγαλην (same translation).
  2. Matthew 27.50 and Luke 23.46 agree in having το πνευμα (the spirit), while both Mark 15.37 and Luke 23.46 have the cognate εξεπνευσεν (expired).
  3. Matthew 27.54 has εκατονταρχος (captain of a hundred). Luke 23.47 has εκατονταρχης (same translation). Mark 15.39 has the synonymous κεντυριων (centurion).
  4. Matthew 27.54 has the general τα γενομενα (the things that happened) and Luke 23.47 likewise has the general το γενομενον (the thing that happened or what happened). Mark 15.39 has the more specific οτι ουτως εξεπνευσεν (that he thus expired).

§ The Old Latin codex itg1 has the following interesting textual variant after Luke 23.48:

...dicentes: Vae nobis quae facta sunt hodie propter peccata nostra, adpropinquavit enim desolatio Hierusalem.

...saying: Woe to us because of the things that have been done today on account of our sins, for the desolation of Jerusalem has drawn near.

Confer Peter 7.25.

§ Acts 7.59:

Και ελιθοβολουν τον Στεφανον, επικαλουμενον και λεγοντα· Κυριε Ιησου, δεξαι τον πνευμα μου.

And they were stoning Stephen, who called out and said: Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!

§ Refer to my notes on the crucifixion for the relevant passage(s) from the epistle of Barnabas.

§ Ignatius to the Magnesians 9.2:

Πως ημεις δυνησομεθα ζησαι χωρις αυτου, ου και οι προφηται μαθηται οντες τω πνευματι ως διδασκαλον αυτον προσεδοκων; και δια τουτο ον δικαιως ανεμενον παρων εγειρεν αυτους εκ νεκρων.

How shall we be able to live apart from him, whose disciples even the prophets, being in the spirit, expected as teacher? And on this account he whom they righteously awaited, when he was present, raised them from the dead.

§ Peter 5.15-7.27:

  1. Ην δε μεσημβρια, και σκοτος κατεσχε πασαν την Ιουδαιαν. και εθορυβουντο, και ηγωνιων μηποτε ο ηλιος εδυ επειδη ετι εζη· γεγραπται αυτοις ηλιον μη δυναι επι πεφονευμενω.
  2. και τις αυτων ειπεν· Ποτισατε αυτον χολην μετα οξους. και κερασαντες εποτισαν.
  3. και επληρωσαν παντα, και ετελειωσαν κατα της κεφαλης αυτων τα αμαρτηματα.
  4. εριηρχοντο δε πολλοι μετα λυχνων νομιζοντες οτι νυξ εστιν επεσαν τε.
  5. και ο κυριος ανεβοησε λεγων· Η δυναμις μου, η δυναμις, κατελειψας με· και ειπων ανεληφθη.
  6. και αυτης ωρας διεραγη το καταπετασμα του ναου της Ιερουσαλημ εις δυο.
  1. And it was midday, and darkness held all Judea fast. And they were afraid and agonized lest the sun should set while he still lived. It is written for them that the sun is not to set upon one who has been executed.
  2. And one of them said: Give him gall and vinegar to drink. And having mixed it they gave it to drink.
  3. And they fulfilled all things, and completed the sins upon their head.
  4. But many went about with lamps, thinking that it was night, and they fell.
  5. And the Lord shouted out saying: My power, power, you have forsaken me! And, having said that, he was taken up.
  6. And at that same hour the curtain of the temple of Jerusalem was torn in two.
  1. Και τοτε απεσπασαν τους ηλους απο των χειρων του κυριου και εθηκαν αυτον επι της γης. και η γη πασα εσεισθη και φοβος μεγας εγενετο.
  2. τοτε ηλιος ελαμψε και ευρεθη ωρα ενατη.
  3. εχαρησαν δε οι Ιουδαιοι και δεδωκασι τω Ιωσηφ το σωμα αυτου ινα αυτο θαψη, επειδη θεασαμενος ην οσα αγαθα εποιησεν.
  4. λαβων δε τον κυριον ελουσε και ειλησε σινδονι και εισηγαγεν εις ιδιον ταφον καλουμενον κηπον Ιωσηφ.
  1. And then they pulled out the nails from the hands of the Lord and placed him upon the earth. And all the earth quaked and there was great fear.
  2. Then the sun shone and it was found to be the ninth hour.
  3. But the Jews rejoiced and gave his body to Joseph so that he might bury it, since he had seen as many good things as he had done.
  4. And having taken the Lord he bathed him and wrapped him in a shroud and bore him unto his own sepulcher, called the garden of Joseph.
  1. Τοτε οι Ιουδαιοι και οι πρεσβυτεροι και οι ιερεις γνοντες οιον κακον εαυτοις εποιησαν ηρξαντο κοπτεσθαι και λεγειν· Ουαι ταις αμαρτιαις ημων, ηγγισεν η κρισις και το τελος Ιερουσαλημ.
  2. εγω δε μετα των εταιρων μου ελυπουμην, και τετρωμενοι κατα διανοιαν εκρυβομεθα. εζητουμεθα γαρ υπ αυτων ως κακουργοι και ως τον ναον θελοντες εμπρησαι.
  3. επι δε τουτοις πασιν ενηστευομεν, και εκαθεζομεθα πενθουντες και κλαιοντες νυκτος και ημερας εως του σαββατου.
  1. Then the Jews and the elders and the priests, knowing what kind of evil they had done to themselves, began to beat and say: Woe for our sins! The judgment and the end of Jerusalem are at hand!
  2. But I with my companions grieved, and wounded in our reasoning we hid. For we were being sought by them as evilworkers and as wishing to burn the sanctuary.
  3. And on top of all these things we were fasting, and we sat mourning and weeping night and day until the sabbath.

§ From Jerome, On Matthew 4, commentary on Matthew 27.51, writing of the gospel according to the Hebrews:

In evangelio cuius saepe facimus mentionem superliminare templi infinitae magnitudinis fractum esse atque divisum legimus.

In the gospel of which we often make mention we read that a lintel of the temple of infinite magnitude was broken and divided.

From the epistle of Jerome to Hedibia, epistle 120:

In evangelio autem quod Hebraicis litteris scriptum est legimus, non velum templi scissum, sed superliminare templi mirae magnitudinis corruisse.

But in the gospel which is written with Hebraic letters we read, not that the veil of the temple was rent, but that the lintel of the temple, of marvelous magnitude, fell.

From Haimo, commentary II, On Isaiah 53.12, writing of the words of Jesus on the cross: Father, forgive them:

Sicut enim in evangelio Nazarenorum habetur, ad hanc vocem domini multa milia Iudaeorum adstantium circa crucem crediderunt.

As it has it in the gospel of the Nazarenes, at this voice of the Lord many thousands of Jews standing around the cross came to faith.

Compare this report to one from the epistle of Jerome to Hedibia, epistle 120:

In tantum autem amavit Hierusalem dominus ut fleret eam et plangeret et pendens in cruce loqueretur: Pater, ignosce eis, quod enim faciunt nesciunt. itaque impetravit quod petierat, multaque statim de Iudaeis milia crediderunt, et usque ad quadragesimum secundum annum datum est tempus paenitentiae.

But by so much did the Lord love Jerusalem that he wept for it and beat his chest, and while hanging on the cross he said: Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. And thus he obtained what he had requested, and many thousands from the Jews came to faith, and a time of penitence was given up until the forty-second year.

From the History of the Passion of the Lord, folio 65 recto, concerning the signs at the death of the Lord:

Item in e[v]angelio Nazareorum legitur superliminare templi infinite magnitudinis in morte Christi scissum. idem dicit Iosephus et addit quod audite sunt voces horribiles in aere dicentes: Transeamus ab hiis sedibus.

Likewise in the gospel of the Nazaraeans it is read that a lintel of the temple of infinite magnitude was broken at the death of Christ. Josephus says the same thing and adds that horrible voices were heard in the air saying: Let us leave these regions.

§ From Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies 5.8.23, writing of the Naassenes:

Και παλιν φησιν· Εξαλουνται εκ των μνημειων οι νεκροι.

And again he says: The dead are escaping out of the tombs.

§ Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho 99.1:

Και ειπων ταυτα επηνεγκα· Ολον ουν τον ψαλμον ουτως αποδειξω υμιν εις τον Χριστον ειρημενον, δι ων παλιν αυτον εξηγουμαι. ο ουν ευθυς λεγει· Ο θεος, ο θεος μου, προσχες μοι· ινα τι εγκατελιπες με; τουτο ανωθεν προειπεν οπερ υπο Χριστου εμελλε λεγεσθαι. σταυρωθεις γαρ ειπεν· Ο θεος, ο θεος, ινα τι εγκατελιπες με;

And when I had said these words I continued: Therefore I will show you, through the words which I shall again exegete, that the whole psalm* spoke thus to Christ. That which therefore is said straightway: God, my God, attend to me: On what account did you abandon me? This foretold from above that which was about to be said by Christ. For after he had been crucified he said: God, God, on what account did you abandon me?

* Psalm 21.

Dialogue 105.5b:

Και γαρ αποδιδους το πνευμα επι τω σταυρω ειπε· Πατερ, εις χειρας σου παρατιθεμαι το πνευμα μου, ως και εκ των απομνημονευματων και τουτο εμαθον.

For when he also was delivering up his spirit upon the cross he said: Father, into your hands I place my spirit, as I learned even this also from the memoirs.

§ Julius Africanus asserts that the historian Thallus wrote about the strange natural phenomena surrounding the death of Jesus as recorded in the gospels. Other church fathers assert that the historian Phlegon also wrote about those events.

§ Passion sources as gleaned from J. D. Crossan in The Cross that Spoke:

Psalm 2.1-2; 22.
Exodus 17.11-12.
Deuteronomy 21.6-7.
Joshua 8, 10.
Psalm 26.4-6; 73.13.
Daniel 13.46.
Susanna 46.
Isaiah 3.9-10; 41.21; 50.6-7; 53.12; 58.2; 59.10; 65.2.
Ezekiel 9.1.
Zechariah 3.1-5; 12.10-12; 14.7.
Amos 8.9-10.
Hosea 6.2.
Leviticus 16.7-10.
Mishnah, Yoma 4-6.

Sibylline Oracles 1.360-382; 8.285-317.
Epistle of Barnabas 5-7.
Ignatius, Smyrnaeans 1-3; Magnesians 9, 11; Trallians 9-10.
Shepherd of Hermas, Similitude 9.
Justin Martyr, Apology 1.40, 66-67, 70, 72, 111-112, 144-145, 192-193, 229; Dialogue 72, 103.
Irenaeus, Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching 74, 77-78.
Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah 3.14-18; 11.19.
Tertullian, Against Marcion 3.7.7; 4.42.2; On the Resurrection of the Flesh 20.4.
Didascalia Apostolorum 5.19.4-5.
Lactantius, Divine Institutes 4.19.
Dialogue of Adamantius 5.1.
Odes of Solomon 17.9-16; 22.1-10; 42.3-20.

Peter passim.
Mark 9.2-13; 14.32-16.8; [16.9-20].
Matthew 17.1-13; 26.36-28.20.
Luke 9.28-36; 22.39-24.53.
Acts 1; 4.8-12, 25-28; 13.27-29.
John 18.1-21.25.
Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 18.63-64.
Tacitus, Annals 15.44.
Acts of Peter 8.
Acts of Thomas 31-32.
Acts of Andrew and Matthias 26.
Acts of John 87-105.
Martyrdom of Polycarp 6.2; 21.1.
Philo, Flaccus 32-34, 36-39 [the mocking of Carabas].
Epistula Apostolorum 9, 51.