The following is a list of ancient quotations relating to John the Baptist, Jesus called Christ, James the Just/Brother of Jesus, other relatives of Jesus, and various statements about others (e.g., Vespasian and the Jewish High Priest Ananus) the details of which relate to or may have influenced the other, later, accounts.

 

The source for these citations, unless otherwise stated, is Dissertation I of William Whiston’s The Genuine Works of Flavius Josephus  (1737, which I cite through a reprint). Please forgive the archaic style of the citations, which I have tried to put into historical perspective as much as possible. I must admit I do not know who a few of the cited authors are, or exactly what works are being referred to in some cases. It is possible that the text of some citations from Whiston have been replaced by those of either the Ante Nicene Christian Fathers, Post Nicene Christian Fathers, or the Loeb Classical Library editions of some early Christian fathers.

 

I changed the spelling of “defence” to “defense” but otherwise left the archaic language or peculiar British spelling intact. Except where noted, brackets [ ] indicate something about sources or a chapter and verse of scripture, but also clarifications of subject matter. Parentheses ( ) may be present in the originals but are in some cases mine and in those cases contain comments or clarifications of subject matter made by me as I saw fit. I take full responsibility for any errors of fact introduced by any comments, citations and clarifications I may have added in this way. Some key words that seem to pop up a lot are set in boldface type.

 

Citations from copyrighted materials were made according to my understanding of their “fair use” for academic purposes. This version of this compilation, except for citations of materials copyrighted by others, is copyright 2007 by David C. Hindley, who releases it into the public domain.

 

Ca. 75 CE. Josephus, Jewish War, 4.5.2.

 

But the rage of the Idumeans was not satiated by these slaughters; but they now betook themselves to the city, and plundered every house, and slew every one they met; and for the other multitude, they esteemed it needless to go on with killing them, but they sought for the high priests, and the generality went with the greatest zeal against them; and as soon as they caught them they slew them, and then standing upon their dead bodies, in way of jest, upbraided Ananus with his kindness to the people, and Jesus with his speech made to them from the wall. Nay, they proceeded to that degree of impiety, as to cast away their dead bodies without burial, although the Jews used to take so much care of the burial of men, that they took down those that were condemned and crucified, and buried them before the going down of the sun. I should not mistake if I said that the death of Ananus was the beginning of the destruction of the city, and that from this very day may be dated the overthrow of her wall, and the ruin of her affairs, whereon they saw their high priest, and the procurer of their preservation, slain in the midst of their city. He was on other accounts also a venerable, and a very just man; and besides the grandeur of that nobility, and dignity, and honor of which he was possessed, he had been a lover of a kind of parity, even with regard to the meanest of the people; he was a prodigious lover of liberty, and an admirer of a democracy in government; and did ever prefer the public welfare before his own advantage, and preferred peace above all things; for he was thoroughly sensible that the Romans were not to be conquered.

 

Ca. 75 CE. Josephus, Jewish War, 6.5.4

 

But now, what did the most elevate them [i.e., the Jewish revolutionaries] in undertaking this war, was an ambiguous oracle that was also found in their sacred writings, how," about that time, one from their country should become governor of the habitable earth." The Jews took this prediction to belong to themselves in particular, and many of the wise men were thereby deceived in their determination. Now this oracle certainly denoted the government of Vespasian, who was appointed emperor in Judea. However, it is not possible for men to avoid fate, although they see it beforehand. But these men interpreted some of these signals according to their own pleasure, and some of them they utterly despised, until their madness was demonstrated, both by the taking of their city and their own destruction.

 

Ca. 95 CE. Josephus, Antiquities, 18.3.3. [Probable interpolation, in whole or at least in part]

 

Now, there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.

 

Ca. 95 CE. Josephus, Antiquities, 18.5.2.

 

Now, some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod’s army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, that was called the Baptist; for Herod slew him, who was a good man and who commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only,] but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. Now, when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise rebellion (for they seemed to do any thing he should advise), thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it should be too late. Accordingly, he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now, the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God’s displeasure against him.

 

Ca. 95 CE. Josephus, Antiquities, 20.9.1.

 

And now Cæsar, upon hearing of the death of Festus, sent Albinus into Judea, as procurator. But the king deprived Joseph of the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to that dignity on the son of Ananus, who was also himself called Ananus. Now the report goes, that this elder Ananus proved a most fortunate man; for he had five sons, who had all performed the office of a high priest to God, and he had himself enjoyed that dignity a long time formerly, which had never happened to any other of our high priests. But this younger Ananus, who, as we have told you already, took the high priesthood, was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees,1 who are very rigid in judging offenders above all the rest of the Jews, as we have already observed: when, therefore, Ananus was of this disposition, be thought he had now a proper opportunity [to exercise his authority.] Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the Sanhedrim of judges, and brought before then the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, [or, some of his compa­nions.] And when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned; but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king, [Agrippa] desiring him to send to Ananus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified: nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Ananus to assemble a Sanhedrim without his consent. Whereupon Albinus complied with what they said, and wrote in anger to Ananus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done; on which king Agrippa took the high priesthood from him, when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus the son of Damneus high priest.

 

Ca. 105-108 CE. Tacitus, Histories, 5.6.13. [alluding to and expanding upon Josephus War 6.5.4?]

 

Few people [in Judaea] placed a sinister interpretation upon this [portent of the door of the Temple swinging open on its own with a rushing sound accompanying the event]. The majority [of the Jews] were convinced that the ancient scriptures of their priests alluded to the present as the very time when the orient would triumph and from Judaea would go forth men destined to rule the world. This mysterious prophesy really referred to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, true to the selfish ambitions of mankind, thought that this mighty destiny was reserved for them, and not even their calamities opened their eyes to the truth.

 

Ca. 115-120 CE. Tacitus Annals, lib. xv. cap. 44.

 

Nero, in order to stifle the rumour, [as if he himself had set Rome on fire,] ascribed it to those people who were hated for their wicked practices, and called by the vulgar “Christians”: these he punished exquisitely. The author of this name was Christ, who, in the reign of Tiberius, was brought to punishment by Pontius Pilate the procurator. // But in spite of this temporary setback the deadly superstition had broken out afresh, not only in Judaea (where the mischief had started) but even in Rome. All degraded and shameful practices collect and flourish in the capital.//

 

Ca. 119-122 CE. Suetonius, Life of Tiberius, 36.

 

He abolished foreign cults at Rome. particularly the Egyptian and Jewish, forcing all [Roman] citizens who had embraced these superstitious faiths to burn their religious vestments and other accessories. Jews of military age were removed to unhealthy regions, on the pretext of drafting them into the army; the others of the same race or of similar beliefs were expelled from the city and threatened with slavery if they defied the order. Tiberius also banished all astrologers except such as asked for his forgiveness and undertook to make no more predictions.

 

Ca. 119-122 CE. Suetonius, Life of Claudius, 25.

 

Because the Jews at Rome caused continuous disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, he [Claudius, ca. 41-54 CE] expelled them from the city.

 

Ca. 119-122 CE. Suetonius, Life of Nero, 16.

 

[After the great fire of Rome, ca. 62 CE] Punishment was inflicted on the Christians, a class of men addicted to a novel and mischievous superstition.

 

Ca. 119-122 CE. Suetonius, Life of Vespasian, 4. [Alluding to either Josephus War 6.5.4 or Tacitus Histories, 5.6.13?]

 

                An ancient superstition was current in the East, that out of Judaea at this time would come the rulers of the world. This prediction, as the event later proved, referred to a Roman Emperor, but the rebellious Jews, ... read it as referring to themselves ...

 

Ca. 119-122 CE. Suetonius, Life of Vespasian, 5.

 

In Judaea, Vespasian consulted the oracle of the God of Carmel and was given the promise that he would never be disappointed in what he planned or desired, however lofty his ambitions. Also, a distinguished prisoner of Vespasian's, Josephus by name, insisted that he would soon be released by the very man who had now put him in fetters, and who would then be Emperor.

 

Ca. 147 CE. Justin Martyr Dialog. cum Trypho,

 

You [Jews] knew that Jesus was risen from the dead, and ascended into heaven, as the prophecies did foretell was to happen.

 

Ca. 170 CE, Hegesippus, Commentaries on the Acts of the Church, Book 5, paraphrased in Eusebius, History of the Church 2:23

 

James, the Lord's brother, succeeds to the government of the Church, in conjunction with the apostles. He has been universally called the Just, from the days of the Lord down to the present time. For many bore the name of James; but this one was holy from his mother's womb. He drank no wine or other intoxicating liquor, nor did he eat flesh; no razor came upon his head; he did not anoint himself with oil, nor make use of the bath. He alone was permitted to enter the holy place: for he did not wear any woolen garment, but fine linen only. He alone, I say, was wont to go into the temple: and he used to be found kneeling on his knees, begging forgiveness for the people--so that the skin of his knees became horny like that of a camel's, by reason of his constantly bending the knee in adoration to God, and begging forgiveness for the people. Therefore, in consequence of his pre-eminent justice, he was called the Just, and Oblias, which signifies in Greek Defense of the People, and Justice, in accordance with what the prophets declare concerning him. [Supposedly referring to the fortified ridge of Mt Zion mentioned in 2 Chron. 27:3]

 

Now some persons belonging to the seven sects existing among the people, which have been before described by me in the Notes, asked him: "What is the door of Jesus?" And he replied that He was the Saviour. In Consequence of this answer, some believed that Jesus is the Christ. But the sects before mentioned did not believe, either in a resurrection or in the coming of One to requite every man according to his works; but those who did believe, believed because of James. So, when many even of the ruling class believed, there was a commotion among the Jews, and scribes, and Pharisees, who said: "A little more, and we shall have all the people looking for Jesus as the Christ.

 

They came, therefore, in a body to James, and said: "We entreat thee, restrain the people: for they are gone astray in their opinions about Jesus, as if he were the Christ. We entreat thee to persuade all who have come hither for the day of the passover, concerning Jesus. For we all listen to thy persuasion; since we, as well as all the people, bear thee testimony that thou art just, and showest partiality to none. Do thou, therefore, persuade the people not to entertain erroneous opinions concerning Jesus: for all the people, and we also, listen to thy persuasion. Take thy stand, then, upon the summit of the temple, that from that elevated spot thou mayest be clearly seen, and thy words may be plainly audible to all the people. For, in order to attend the passover, all the tribes have congregated hither, and some of the Gentiles also."

 

The aforesaid scribes and Pharisees accordingly set James on the summit of the temple, and cried aloud to him, and said: "O just one, whom we are all bound to obey, forasmuch as the people is in error, and follows Jesus the crucified, do thou tell us what is the door of Jesus, the crucified." And he answered with a loud voice: "Why ask ye me concerning Jesus the Son of man? He Himself sitteth in heaven, at the right hand of the Great Power, and shall come on the clouds of heaven."

 

And, when many were fully convinced by these words, and offered praise for the testimony of James, and said, "Hosanna to the son of David," then again the said Pharisees and scribes said to one another, "We have not done well in procuring this testimony to Jesus. But let us go up and throw him down, that they may be afraid, and not believe him." And they cried aloud, and said: "Oh! oh! The just man himself is in error." Thus they fulfilled the Scripture written in Isaiah: "Let us away with the just man, because he is troublesome to us: therefore shall they eat the fruit of their doings." So they went up and threw down the just man, and said to one another: "Let us stone James the Just." And they began to stone him: for he was not killed by the fall; but he turned, and kneeled down, and said: "I beseech Thee, Lord God our Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do."

 

And, while they were thus stoning him to death, one of the priests, the sons of Rechab, the son of Rechabim, to whom testimony is borne by Jeremiah the prophet, began to cry aloud, saying: "Cease, what do ye? The just man is praying for us." But one among them, one of the fullers, took the staff with which he was accustomed to wring out the garments he dyed, and hurled it at the head of the just man.

 

And so he suffered martyrdom; and they buried him on the spot, and the pillar erected to his memory still remains, close by the temple. This man was a true witness to both Jews and Greeks that Jesus is the Christ.

 

And shortly after Vespasian besieged Judaea, taking them captive.

 

Ca. 170 CE, Hegesippus, Commentaries on the Acts of the Church, in Eusebius, History of the Church 3:20

 

After the capture of the Jews by (Emperor) Vespasian “there still survived of the kindred of the Lord the (two) grandsons of Judas, who (Judas) according to the flesh was called his (Jesus’) brother. These were informed against, as belonging to the family of David, and (an official named) Evocatus (or a person who held the rank of an evocati in the army) brought them before Domitian Caesar: for (that one) dreaded the coming of Christ, as Herod had done. Of the family of the Lord there were still 1 living the grandchildren of Jude, who is said to have been the Lord's brother according to the flesh. Information was given that they belonged to the family of David, and they 2 were brought to the Emperor Domitian by the Evocatus. For Domitian feared the coming of Christ as Herod also had feared it. And he asked them if they were descendants of David, and they confessed that they were. Then he asked them how much property they had, or how much money they owned. And both of them answered that they had only nine thousand denarii, half of which belonged to each of them; and this property did not consist of silver, but of a piece of land which contained only thirty-nine acres, and from which they raised their taxes and supported themselves by their own labor." Then they showed their hands, exhibiting the hardness of their bodies and the callousness produced upon their hands by continuous toil as evidence of their own labor.  And when they were asked concerning Christ and his kingdom, of what sort it was and where and when it was to appear, they, answered that it was not a temporal nor an earthly kingdom, but a heavenly and angelic one, which would appear at the end of the world, when he should come in glory to judge the quick and the dead, and to give unto every one according to his works. Upon hearing this, Domitian did not pass judgment against them, but, despising them as of no account, he let them go, and by a decree put a stop to the persecution of the Church. But when they were released they ruled the churches because they were witnesses and were also relatives of the Lord. And peace being established, they lived until the time of Trajan. These things are related by Hegesippus.

 

Ca. 170 CE, Hegesippus, Commentaries on the Acts of the Church, in Eusebius, History of the Church 3:32

 

It is reported that after the age of Nero and Domitian, under the emperor whose times we are now recording, a persecution was stirred up against us in certain cities in consequence of a popular uprising. In this persecution we have understood that Symeon, the son of Clopas, who, as we have shown, was the second bishop of the church of Jerusalem, suffered martyrdom. Hegesippus, whose words we have already quoted in various places, is a witness to this fact also. Speaking of certain heretics he adds that Symeon was accused by them at this time; and since it was clear that he was a Christian, he was tortured in various ways for many days, and astonished even the judge himself and his attendants in the highest degree, and finally he suffered a death similar to that of our Lord. But there is nothing like hearing the historian himself, who writes as follows: "Certain of these heretics brought accusation against Symeon, the son of Clopas, on the ground that he was a descendant of David and a Christian; and thus he suffered martyrdom, at the age of one hundred and twenty years, while Trajan was emperor and Atticus governor [possibly Procurator or Prefect over Judea, and which would likely have been between 103/3 and 104/5 CE]." And the same writer says that his [i.e., Symeon, the son of Clopas] accusers also, when search was made for the descendants of David, were arrested as belonging to that family. And it might be reasonably assumed that Symeon was one of those that saw and heard the Lord, judging from the length of his life, and from the fact that the Gospel makes mention of Mary, the wife of Clopas [John 19:25ff], who was the father of Symeon, as has been already shown.

 

The same historian says that there were also others, descended from one of the so-called brothers of the Saviour, whose name was Judas, who, after they had borne testimony before Domitian, as has been already recorded, in behalf of faith in Christ, lived until the same reign. He writes as follows: "They came, therefore, and took the lead of every church as witness and as relatives of the Lord. And profound peace being established in every church, they remained until the reign of the Emperor Trajan, and until the above-mentioned Symeon, son of Clopas, an uncle of the Lord, was informed against by the heretics, and was himself in like manner accused for the same cause before the governor Atticus [possibly Procurator or Prefect over Judea, and which would likely have been between 103/3 and 104/5 CE]. And after being tortured for many days he suffered martyrdom, and all, including even the proconsul, marveled that, at the age of one hundred and twenty years, he could endure so much. And orders were given that he should be crucified."

 

In addition to these things the same man, while recounting the events of that period, records that the Church up to that time had remained a pure and uncorrupted virgin, since, if there were any that attempted to corrupt the sound norm of the preaching of salvation, they lay until then concealed in obscure darkness. But when the sacred college of apostles had suffered death in various forms, and the generation of those that had been deemed worthy to hear the inspired wisdom with their own ears had passed away, then the league of godless error took its rise as a result of the folly of heretical teachers, who, because none of the apostles was still living, attempted henceforth, with a bold face, to proclaim, in opposition to the preaching of the truth, the 'knowledge which is falsely so-called.'

 

Ca. 200-225 CE, Julius Africanus, Epistle to Aristides, in Eusebius, History of the Church, 1:7:

               

Matthew and Luke in their gospels have given us the genealogy of Christ differently, and many suppose that they are at variance with one another. Since as a consequence every believer, in ignorance of the truth, has been zealous to invent some explanation which shall harmonize the two passages, permit us to subjoin the account of the matter which has come down to us, and which is given by Africanus, who was mentioned by us just above, in his epistle to Aristides, where he discusses the harmony of the gospel genealogies. [...]

 

For the relatives of our Lord according to the flesh, whether with the desire of boasting or simply wishing to state the fact, in either case truly, have banded down the following account: Some Idumean robbers, having attacked Ascalon, a city of Palestine, carried away from a temple of Apollo which stood near the walls, in addition to other booty, Antipater, son of a certain temple slave named Herod. And since the priest was not able to pay the ransom for his son, Antipater was brought up in the customs of the Idumeans, and afterward was befriended by Hyrcanus, the high priest of the Jews. And having, been sent by Hyrcanus on an embassy to Pompey, and having restored to him the kingdom which had been invaded by his brother Aristobulus, he had the good fortune to be named procurator of Palestine. But Antipater having been slain by those who were envious of his great good fortune was succeeded by his son Herod, who was afterward, by a decree of the senate, made King of the Jews under Antony and Augustus. His sons were Herod and the other tetrarchs. These accounts agree also with those of the Greeks. But as there had been kept in the archives up to that time the genealogies of the Hebrews as well as of those who traced their lineage back to proselytes, such as Achior  the Ammonite and Ruth the Moabitess, and to those who were mingled with the Israelites and came out of Egypt with them, Herod, inasmuch as the lineage of the Israelites contributed nothing to his advantage, and since he was goaded with the consciousness of his own ignoble extraction, burned all the genealogical records, thinking that he might appear of noble origin if no one else were able, from the public registers, to trace back his lineage to the patriarchs or proselytes and to those mingled with them, who were called Georae.

 

A few of the careful, however, having obtained private records of their own, either by remembering the names or by getting them in some other way from the registers, pride themselves on preserving the memory of their noble extraction. Among these are those already mentioned, called Desposyni, on account of their connection with the family of the Saviour. Coming from Nazara and Cochaba, villages of Judea, into other parts of the world, they drew the aforesaid genealogy from memory and from the book of daily records as faithfully as possible.

 

Ca. 230 CE. Origen Comment. in Matth. p. 234.

 

This James was of so shining a character among the people, on account of his righteousness, that Flavius Josephus, when, in his twentieth book of the Jewish Antiquities, he had a mind to set down what was the cause why the people suffered such miseries, till the very holy house was demolished, he said that these things befell them by the anger of God, on account of what they had dared to do to James, the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ: and wonderful it is that, while he did not receive Jesus for Christ, he did nevertheless bear witness that James was so righteous a man. He says further, that the people thought that they suffered these things for the sake of James.

 

Ca. 250 CE. Origen Contra Cels. lib. i. p. 35, 36.

 

I would say to Celsus, who personates a Jew, that admitted of John the Baptist, and how he baptised Jesus, that one who lived but a little while after John and Jesus, wrote, how that John was a baptizer unto the remission of sins. For Josephus testifies in the eighteenth book of Jewish Antiquities, that John was the Baptist, and that he promised purification to those that were baptized. The same Josephus also, although he did not believe in Jesus as Christ, when he was inquiring after the cause of the destruction of Jerusalem and of the demolition of the temple, and ought to have said, that their machinations against Jesus were the cause of those miseries coming on the people, because they had slain that Christ who was foretold by the prophets, he, though as it were unwillingly, and yet as one not remote from the truth, says, “These miseries befell the Jews by way of revenge for James the Just, who was the brother of Jesus, that was called Christ, because they had slain him who was the most righteous person.” Now this James was he whom that genuine disciple of Jesus, Paul, said he had seen as the Lord’s brother; [Gal. i. 19.] which relation implies not so much nearness of blood, or the sameness of education, as it does the agreement of manners and preaching. If therefore he says the desolation of Jerusalem befell the Jews for the sake of James, with how much greater reason might he have said, that it happened for the sake of Jesus, &c.

 

Ca. 324 CE. Eusebius Demonstr. Even. lib. iii. p. 124.

 

Certainly the attestation of those I have already produced concerning our Saviour may be sufficient. However, it may not be amiss, if, over and above, we make use of Josephus the Jew for further witness; who, in the eighteenth book of his Antiquities, when he was writing the history of what happened under Pilate, makes mention of our Saviour in these words: “Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as had a veneration for truth; he drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles: He was the Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at first did not forsake him; for he appeared unto them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had spoken of these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him; whence the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.” If, therefore, we have this historian’s testimony, that he not only brought over to himself the twelve apostles, with the seventy disciples, but many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles also, he must manifestly have had somewhat in him extraordinary above the rest of mankind, for how otherwise could he draw over so many of the Jews and of the Gentiles, unless he performed admirable and amazing works, and used a method of teaching that was not common? Moreover, the scripture of the Acts of the Apostles bears witness, that there were many ten thousands of Jews, who were persuaded that he was the Christ of God, who was foretold by the prophets. [Acts xxi. 20.]

 

Ca. 330 CE. Eusebius Hist. Eccles. lib. i. cap. 11.

 

Now the divine scriptures of the Gospels make mention of John the Baptist as having his head cut off by the younger Herod. Josephus also concurs in this history, and makes mention of Herodias by name, as the wife of his brother, whom Herod had married, upon divorcing his former lawful wife. She was the daughter of Aretas, king of the Petrean Arabians; and which Herodias had parted from her husband while he was alive: on which account also, when he had slain John, he made war with Aretas, [Aretas made war with him,] because his daughter had been used dishonourably. In which war, when it came to a battle, he says, that all Herod’s army was destroyed, and that he suffered this because of his wicked contrivance against John. Moreover, the same Josephus, by acknowledging John to have been a most righteous man, and the Baptist, conspires in his testimony with what is written in the Gospels. He also relates, that Herod lost his kingdom for the sake of the same Herodias, together with whom he was himself condemned to be banished to Vienne, a city of Gaul. And this is his account in the eighteenth book of the Antiquities, where he writes this of John verbatim; some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod’s army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment for what he did against John, that was called the Baptist, for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and one that commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism, for that by this means the washing [with water] would appear acceptable to him, when they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only,] but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness.

 

Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were greatly delighted in hearing his words, Herod was afraid that this so great power of persuading men might tend to some sedition or other, for they seemed to be disposed to do every thing he should advise them to, so he supposed it better to prevent any attempt of a mutation from him, by cutting him off, than after any such mutation should be brought about, and the public should suffer, to repent [of such negligence.] Accordingly, he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Machærus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death.

 

When Josephus had said this of John, he makes mention also of our Saviour in the same history, after this manner: “Now there was about this time one Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure; he drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles also: he was the Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these, and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And still the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.”

 

And since this writer, sprung from the Hebrews themselves, hath delivered these things above in his own work, concerning John the Baptist and our Saviour, what room is there for any further evasion? &c.

 

Now James was so wonderful a person, and was so celebrated by all others for righteousness, that the judicious Jews thought this to have been the occasion of that siege of Jerusalem, which came on presently after his martyrdom, and that it befell them for no other reason, than that impious fact they were guilty of against him. Josephus, therefore, did not refuse to attest thereto in writing, by the words following: “These miseries befell the Jews by way of revenge for James the Just, who was the brother of Jesus that was called Christ, on this account, that they had slain him who was a most righteous person.”

 

The same Josephus declares the manner of his death in the twentieth book of the Antiquities, in these words: “Cæsar sent Albinus into Judea to be procurator, when he had heard that Festus was dead. Now Ananus junior, who, as we said, had been admitted to the high priesthood, was in temper bold and daring in an extraordinary manner. He was also of the sect of the Sadducees, who are more savage in judgment than the other Jews, as we have already signified. Since, therefore, this was the character of Ananus, he thought he had now a proper opportunity [to exercise his authority,] because Festus was dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembles the Sanhedrim of judges, and brings before them James the brother of Jesus. who was called Christ, and some others [of his companions,] and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned: but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and those who were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done. They also went to the king [Agrippa,] desiring him to send to Ananus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done could not be justified,” &c.

 

Ca. 360 CE. Ambrose, or Hegesippus de Excid. Urb. Hierosolym. lib. ii. cap. 12.

 

We have discovered that it was the opinion and belief of the Jews, as Josephus affirms, (who is an author not to be rejected, when he writes against himself,) that Herod [Antipas] lost his army, not by the deceit of men, but by the anger of God, and that justly, as an effect of revenge for what he did to John the Baptist, a just man, who had said to him, It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother’s wife.

 

The Jews themselves also bear witness to Christ, as appears by Josephus, the writer of their history, who says thus: That there was at that time a wise man, if, says he, it be lawful to have him called a man; a doer of wonderful works, who appeared to his disciples after the third day from his death alive again, according to the writings of the prophets, who fore. told these, and innumerable other miraculous events concerning him; from whom began the congregation of Christians, and hath penetrated among all sorts of men; nor does there remain any nation in the Roman world, which continues strangers to his religion. If the Jews do not believe us, let them at least believe their own writers. Josephus, whom they esteem a very great man, hath said this, and yet hath he spoken truth after such a manner, and so far was his mind wandered from the right way, that even he was not a believer, as to what he himself said; but thus he spoke, in order to deliver historical truth, because he thought it not lawful for him to deceive, while yet he was no believer, because of the hardness of his heart and his perfidious intention. However, it was no prejudice to the truth that he was not a believer; but this adds more weight to his testimony, that while he was an unbeliever, and unwilling this should be true, he has not denied it to be so.

 

Ca. 400 CE. Hieronym. de Vir. Illustr. in Josepho.

 

Josephus, in the eighteenth book of Antiquities, most expressly acknowledges, that Christ was slain by the Pharisees on account of the greatness of his miracles, and that John the Baptist was truly a prophet; and that Jerusalem was demolished on account of the slaughter of James the apostle. Now, he wrote concerning our Lord after this manner: “At the same time there was Jesus, a wise man, if yet it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of those who willingly receive the truth. He had many followers both of the Jews and of the Gentiles. He was believed to be Christ. And when, by the envy of our principal men, Pilate had condemned him to the cross, yet notwithstanding, those who had loved him at first persevered, for he appeared to them alive on the third day, as the oracles of the prophets had foretold many of those and other wonderful things concerning him; and the sect of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.”

 

Ca. 410 CE. Isidorus Pelusiota the Scholar of Chrysostom, lib. iv. epist. 225.

 

There was one Josephus, a Jew, of the greatest reputation, and one that was zealous of the law; one also that paraphrased the Old Testament with truth, and acted valiantly for the Jews, and had showed that their settlement was nobler than can be described by words. Now, since he made their interest give place to truth, for he would not support the opinion of impious men, I think it necessary to set down his words.

 

What then does he say? “Now there was about that time one Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer or wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. he drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles: He was the Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them the third day alive again, as the divine prophets had said these and a vast number of other wonderful things concerning him: and the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.” Now I cannot but wonder greatly at this man’s love of truth in many respects, but chiefly where he says, “Jesus was a teacher of men who received the truth with pleasure.”

 

Ca. 440 CE. Sozomen. Hist. Eccles, lib. i. cp. I .

 

Now Josephus, the son of Mattathias, a priest, a man of very great note, both among the Jews and Romans, may well be a witness of credit, as to the truth of Christ’s history; for he scruples to call him a man, as being a doer of wonderful works, and a teacher of the words of truth. He names him Christ openly; and is not ignorant that he was condemned to the cross, and appeared on the third day alive; and that ten thousand other wonderful things were foretold of him by the divine prophets. Be testifies also, that those whom he drew over to him, being many of the Gentiles, as well as of the Jews, continued to love him; and that the tribe named from him was not then extinct.

 

Now he seems to me by this his relation, almost to proclaim that Christ is God. However, he appears to have been so affected with the strangeness of the thing, as to run as it were in a sort of middle way, so as not to put any indignity upon believers in him, but rather to afford his suffrage to them.

 

Ca. 510 CE. Cassidorus Hist. Tripartit. e Sozomeno.

 

Now Josephus, the son of Mattathias, and a priest, a man of great nobility among the Jews, and of great dignity among the Romans, bears witness to the truth of Christ’s history; for he dares not call him a man, as a doer of famous works, and a teacher of true doctrines; he names him Christ openly; and is not ignorant that he was condemned to the cross, and appeared on the third day alive, and that an infinite number of other wonderful things were foretold of him by the holy prophets. Moreover he testifies also, that there were then alive many whom he had chosen, both Greeks and Jews, and that they continued to love him; and that the sect which was named from him was by no means extinct at that time.

 

Ca. 640 CE. Cassidorus Chron. Alex. p. 514.

 

Now Josephus also relates in the eighteenth book of Antiquities, how John the Baptist, that holy man, was beheaded on account of Herodias, the wife of Philip, the brother of Herod [Antipas] himself; for Herod [Antipas] had divorced his former wife, who was still alive, and had been his lawful wife: she was the daughter of Aretas, king of the Petreans. When therefore Herod [Antipas] had taken Herodias away from her husband, while he was yet alive, (on whose account he slew John also,) Aretas made war against Herod [Antipas], because his daughter had been dishonourably treated. In which war, he says, that all Herod [Antipas]’s army was destroyed, and that he suffered that calamity because of the wickedness he had been guilty of against John. The same Josephus relates, that Herod [Antipas] lost his kingdom on account of Herodias, and that with her he was banished to Lyons. &c.

 

Ca. 640 CE. Cassidorus Chron. Alex. p. 526, 527.

 

Now that our Saviour taught his preaching three years, is demonstrated both by other necessary reasonings, as also out of the holy Gospels, and out of Josephus’ writings, who was a wise man among the Hebrews, &c.

 

Ca. 640 CE. Cassidorus Chron. Alex. p. 584, 587.1

 

Josephus relates in the fifth book of the [Jewish] War that Jerusalem was taken in the third [second] year of Vespasian, as after forty years since they dared to put Jesus to death: in which time he says, that James the brother of our Lord, and bishop of Jerusalem, was thrown down [from the temple.] and slain of them, by stoning.

 

Ca. 740 CE. Anastasias Abbas contr. Jud.

 

Now Josephus, an author and writer of your own, says of Christ, that he was a just and good man, showed and declared so to be by divine grace, who gave aid to many by signs and miracles.

 

Ca. 790 CE. Georgius Syncellus Chron. p. 339.

 

These miseries befell the Jews by way of revenge for James the Just, who was the brother of Jesus that was called Christ, on the account that they had slain him who was a most righteous person. Now as Ananus, a person of that character, thought he had a proper opportunity, because Festus was dead, and Albinus was but upon the road, so he assembles the Sanhedrim of judges, and brings before them James, the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, and some of his companions; and when he had formed an accusation against them, as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned; but as for those that seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and those that were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done. They also sent to the king [Agrippa,] desiring him to send to Ananus that he should act so no more, for what he had done already could not be justified, &c.

 

Ca. 850 CE. Johan. Malela Chron. lib. x.

 

From that time began the destruction of the Jews, as Josephus, the philosopher of the Hebrews, hath written: who also said this, that from the time the Jews crucified Christ, who was a good and righteous man, (that is, if it be right to call such a one a man, and not a God,) the land of Judea was never free from trouble. These things the same Josephus the Jew has related in his writings.

 

Ca. 860 CE. Photius Cod. lib. xlviii.

 

I have read the treatise of Josephus about the universe, whose title I have elsewhere read to be, Of the Substance of the Universe. It is contained in two very small treatises. He treats of the origin of the world in a brief manner.  However, he speaks of the divinity of Christ, who is our true God, in a way very like to what we use, declaring that the same name of Christ belongs to him, and writes of his ineffable generation of the Father after such a manner, as cannot be blamed; which thing may perhaps raise a doubt in some, whether Josephus were the author of the work, though the phraseology does not at all differ from this man’s other works. However, I have found in some papers, that this discourse was not written by Josephus, but by one Caius a presbyter.

 

Ca. 860 CE. Photius Cod. lib. ccxxxviii.

 

Herod [Antipas] the tetrarch of Galilee and of Perea, the son of Herod the Great, fell in love, as Josephus says, with the wife of his brother Philip, whose name was Herodias, who was the grand-daughter of Herod the Great, by his son Aristobulus, whom he had slain. Agrippa was also her brother. Now Herod [Antipas] took her away from her husband, and married her. This is he that slew John the Baptist, that great man, the forerunner [of Christ,] being afraid, as Josephus says, lest he should raise a sedition among his people; for they all followed the directions of John, on account of the excellency of his virtue. In his time was the passion of our Saviour.

 

Ca. 860 CE. Photius Cod. lib. xxxiii.

 

I have read the Chronicle of Justus of Tiberias. He omits the greatest part of what was most necessary to be related; but, as infected with Jewish prejudices, being also himself a Jew by birth, he makes no mention at all of the advent, or of the acts done, or of the miracles wrought, by Christ.

 

Uncertain date. Macarius in Actis Sanctorum, tom. v. p. 149 ap. Fabric. Joseph. p. 61 .

 

Josephus, a priest of Jerusalem, and one that wrote with truth the history of the Jewish affairs, bears witness that Christ, the true God, was incarnate, and crucified, and the third day rose again; whose writings are deposited in the public library. Thus he says, “Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure: he drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles also: this was the Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these, and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And still the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.” Since therefore the writer of the Hebrews have engraven this testimony concerning our Lord and Saviour in his own books, what defense can there remain for the unbelievers?

 

Ca. 900-1100 CE, Unknown Editor/Translator of Slavonic version of Josephus' Jewish War, inserted between Book II.7.2 & 3

 

Now at that time there walked among the Jews a man in wondrous garb, for he had put animals' hair upon his body wherever it was not covered by his (own) hair; and in countenance he was like a savage. He came to the Jews and summoned them to freedom, saying: "God hath sent me to show you the way of the Law, whereby ye may free yourselves from many masters; and there shall be no mortal ruling over you, but only the Highest who hath sent me." And when the people heard that, they were glad. And he did nothing else to them, save that he dipped them into the stream of the Jordan and let (them) go, admonishing them to desist from evil works; (for) so would they be given a king who would set them free and subject all (the) insubordinate, but he himself would be subject to no one - (he) of whom we speak. Some mocked, but others put faith (in him). And when he was brought to Archelaus and the doctors of the Law had assembled, they asked him who he was and where he had been until then. And he answered and spake: "I am a man had hither the spirit of God hath called me, and I live on the cane and roots and fruits of the tree." But when they threatened to torture him if he did not desist from these words and deeds, he spake nevertheless; "It is meet rather for you to desist from your shameful works and to submit to the Lord your God." And Simon of Essene extraction, a scribe, arose in wrath and spake: "We read the divine book every day; but thou now come forth from the wool like a wild beast, dost thou dare to teach us and to seduce the multitudes with thy cursed speeches? And he pushed (upon him) to rend his body. But he spake in reproach to them: "I will not disclose to you the secret that is among you because ye desired it not. Therefore have unspeakable misfortune come upon you and through your own doing." And after he had thus spoken, he went forth to the other side of the Jordan; and since no man durst hinder him, he did what (he had done) before.

 

Ca. 900-1100 CE, Unknown Editor/Translator of Slavonic version of Josephus' Jewish War, inserted in Book II.9.2

 

Philip, during his government, saw a dream, to wit that an eagle plucked out both his eyes; and he called all his wise men together. When some explained the dream in this manner and other in that, there came to him suddenly, without being called, that man of whom we have previously written, that he went about in animals' hair and cleansed the people in the waters of the Jordan. And he spake: "Hear the word of the Lord - the dream that thou hast seen. The eagle is thy venality, for that bird is violent and rapacious. And this sin will take away thine eyes, which are thy dominion and they wife." And when he had thus spoken, Philip expired before evening, and his dominion was given to Agrippa. And his [i.e., Philip's] wife [Herodias] was taken by Herod [Antipas] his brother. Because of her all law-abiding people abhorred him, but durst not accuse (him) to his face. But only this man, whom we called the savage, came to him in wrath and spake: "Forasmuch as thou hast taken thy brother's wife, thou transgressor of the law, even as thy brother has died a merciless death, so wilt thou too be cut off by the heavenly sickle. For the divine decree will not be silenced, but will destroy thee through evil afflictions in other lands; because thou dost not raise up seed unto thy brother, but gratifiest (thy) fleshy lusts and committest adultery, seeing that he has left four children." But Herod [Antipas], when he heard (that), was wroth and commanded that they should beat him and drive him out. But he incessantly accused Herod, wherever he found him, until he (Herod [Antipas]) grew furious, and gave orders to slay him. Now his nature was marvelous and his ways not human. For even as a fleshless spirit, so lived he. His mouth knew no bread, nor even at the Passover feast did he taste of unleavened bread, saying: "In remembrance of God, who redeemed the people from bondage, is (this) given to eat, and for the flight (only), since the journey was in haste." But wine and strong drink he would not so much as allow to be brought nigh him; and every beast he abhorred (for food); and every injustice he exposed; and fruits of the trees served him for (his) needs.

 

Ca. 900-1100 CE, Unknown Editor/Translator of Slavonic version of Josephus' Jewish War, inserted between Book II.9.3 & 4

 

At the time there appeared a man, if it is permissible to call him a man. His nature and form were human, but his appearance was something more than that of a man; notwithstanding his works were divine. He worked miracles wonderful and mighty. Therefore it is impossible for me to call him a man; but again, if I look at the nature which he shared with all, I will not call him an angel. And everything whatsoever he wrought through an invisible power, he wrought by word and command. Some said of him: 'Our first law-giver is risen from the dead and has performed many healings and arts', while others thought he was sent from God. Nevertheless in many things he disobeyed the Law and kept not the Sabbath according to the customs of our fathers. Yet on the other hand he did nothing shameful; nor did he do anything with aid of hands, but by words alone did he provide everything.

 

And many of the multitude followed after him and hearkened to his teachings; and many souls were in commotion thinking that thereby the Jewish tribes might free themselves from Roman hands. Now it was his custom in general to sojourn over against the city upon the Mount of Olives, and there too he bestowed his healings upon the people.

 

And there assembled around him one hundred and fifty ministers and a multitude of the people. Now when they saw his power, that he accomplished whatever he wanted by words, and when they had made known to him their will, that he should enter into the city and cut down the Roman troops and Pilate and rule over us, he did not disdain us.

 

And when knowledge of this came to the Jewish leaders they assembled together with the high priest and said: 'We are powerless and too weak to stand against the Romans. Seeing moreover that the bow is bent, we will go and communicate to Pilate what we have heard and we shall be clear of trouble, otherwise he may hear it from others and we may be robbed of our substance and slaughtered and our children scattered. And they went and told Pilate. And he sent and had many of the multitude slain. And he had that Wonder-worker brought up, and after instituting an inquiry concerning him, he pronounced judgement: 'He is a benefactor not a malefactor, nor a rebel, nor covetous of Kingship.' And he let him go, for he had healed his dying wife.

 

And he went to his accustomed place and did his usual works. And when more people again assembled round him, he glorified himself through his actions more than all. The doctors of the Law were overcome with envy, and gave thirty talents to Pilate in order that he should put him to death. And he took it and gave them liberty to execute their will themselves. And they laid their hands on him and crucified him contrary to the law of their fathers.

 

Ca. 900-1100 CE, Unknown Editor/Translator of Slavonic version of Josephus' Jewish War, replacing part of Book II.11.6 describing what happened after the death of Agrippa I.

 

But if anyone deviated from the word of the Law, information was laid [by Cuspius Fadus and Tiberius Alexander] before the teachers of the Law; thereupon they punished and banished him or sent (him) to Caesar.

 

And since in the time of those (rulers) many followers of the Wonder-worker afore-mentioned had appeared and spoken to the people of their Master, (saying) that he was alive, although he was [or "had been"] dead, and "He will free you from your bondage," many of the multitude harkened to the(ir) preaching and took heed to their injunctions -- [not on account of their reputation]; for they were of the humbler sort, some were shoemakers, others sandalmakers, others artisans. [But wonderful were the signs which they worked, in truth what they would.

 

But when those noble procurators saw the falling away of the people, they determined, together with the scribes, to seize (them) [and put (them) to death], for fear lest the little might (not) be little, if it ended in the great. [But they {i.e., the scribes?} shrank back and were in terror at the signs, saying "Not through medicines {i.e., drugs} do such wonders come to pass; but if they do not proceed from the counsel of God, then they will quickly be exposed." But afterwards, being prevailed on (?) by them], they sent them away, some to Caesar, other to Antioch to be tried, others (they exiled) to distant lands.

 

Ca. 900-1100 CE, Unknown Editor/Translator of Slavonic version of Josephus' Jewish War, replacing part of Book  IV.6.2.

 

And, [the Idumeans] standing over their dead bodies [i.e., that of the former High Priests Ananus and Jesus, whom they had hunted down and killed, and were about to cast away the bodies of whom without burial], they insulted them, saying over Ananus, "In truth thou art a friend of Jerusalem and art worthy of the honour with which thou art honored." And over Jesus they said, "Very eloquent art thou and wise, and much trouble didst thou give thyself, when speaking from the battlements. But now, rest!"

 

Ca. 900-1100 CE, Unknown Editor/Translator of Slavonic version of Josephus' Jewish War, inserted into Book V.5.2, on the warning stelea in the outer courts of the Temple.

 

And above these titles [i.e., the two stelea mentioned in the Greek versions plus an additional third in "Jewish characters"] was hung a fourth title in the same [Jewish?] characters, announcing that Jesus (the) /king did not reign, (but was) crucified [by the Jews], because he prophesied the destruction of the city and the devestation of the temple.

 

Ca. 900-1100 CE, Unknown Editor/Translator of Slavonic version of Josephus' Jewish War, inserted into Book V.5.5, on the veil of the Temple.

 

This curtain was before this generation entire, because the people were pious; but now it was grievous to see, for it was suddenly rent from the top to the bottom, when they through bribery delivered the benefactor of men and him who from his actions was no man.

 

[And of many other fearful signs might one tell, which happened then. And it is said that he, after being killed and after being layed in the grave, was not found. Some indeed profess that he had risen, others that he was stolen away by his friends. But for my part I know not which speak more correctly. For one that is dead may not rise of himself, though he may do so with the help of the prayer of another righteous man, unless he be an angel or another of the heavenly powers, or (unless) God himself appears as a man and accomplishes what he will, and walks with men and falls and lies down and rises again, as pleases his will. But others said that it was not possible to steal him away, because they set watchmen around his tomb, thirty Romans and a thousand Jews.]

 

Such (is the story told) of that curtain. There are also (objections) against this reason for its rending.

 

Ca. 900-1100 CE, Unknown Editor/Translator of Slavonic version of Josephus' Jewish War, replacing part of Book VI.5.3 regarding the Oracle of the World-Ruler.

 

Some understood that this meant Herod, others the crucified Wonder-worker Jesus, others again Vespasian.

 

Ca. 942 CE. Agapius, Melkite bishop of Hierapolis, in Asia Minor, Kitab al-‘Unwan (an Arabic chronicle of the world, probably translated from a Syriac version of a Greek original). Translation by Shlomo Pines, “An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and its Implications,” in Studies in the History of Religion, edited by G. G. Stroumsa, The Collected Works of Shlomo Pines, (Jerusalem: The Magnes Press, The Hebrew University, 1996), vol. IV, pp. 41-42, as quoted by Marian Hillar, M.D., Ph.D., www.socinian.org/files/TestimoniumFlavianum.pdf:

 

For he [i.e. Josephus] says in the treatises that he has written on the governance [i.e. Antiquities] of the Jews: At this time there was a wise man who was called Jesus. His conduct was good, and [he] was known to be virtuous. And many people from among the Jews and the other nations became his disciples. Pilate condemned him to be crucified and to die. But those who had become his disciples did not abandon his discipleship. They reported that he had appeared to them three days after his crucifixion, and that he was alive; accordingly he was perhaps the Messiah, concerning whom the prophets have recounted wonders.

 

Ca. 980 CE. Suidas in voce Jesous.

 

We have found Josephus, who hath written about the taking of Jerusalem, (of whom Eusebius Pamphili makes frequent mention in his Ecclesiastical History,) saying openly in his memoirs of the captivity, that Jesus officiated in the temple with the priests. Thus we have found Josephus saying, a man of ancient times, and not very long after the Apostles, &c.

 

Ca. 1060 CE. Cedrenus Compend. Hist. p. 196.

 

Josephus does indeed write concerning John the Baptist as follows: “Some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod [Antipas]’s army came from God, and that he was punished very justly for what punishment he inflicted on John, that was called the Baptist; for Herod [Antipas] slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both by righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism.” But as concerning Christ, the same Josephus says, that about that time there was Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, and a teacher of such men as receive the truth with plea sure, for that Christ drew over many even from the Gentiles; whom when Pilate had crucified, those who at first had loved him, did not leave off to preach concerning him, for he appeared to them the third day alive again, as the divine prophets had testified, and spoke these and other wonderful things concerning him.”

 

Ca. 1080 CE. Theophilact in Joan. lib. xiii.

 

The city of the Jews was taken, and the wrath of God was kindled against them; as also Josephus witnesses, that this came upon them on account of the death of Jesus.

 

Ca. 1120 CE. Zonoras Annal. tom. i. p. 267.

 

Josephus, in the eighteenth book of Antiquities, writes thus concerning our Lord and God Jesus Christ: “Now there was about this time, Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles: he was the Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that had loved him at first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them the third day alive again, as the divine prophets had said these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him; and the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.”

 

Ca. 1120 CE. Glycas Annal. p. 234.

 

Then did Philo, that wise man, and Josephus, flourish. This last was styled, The lover of truth, because he commended John, who baptized our Lord: and because he bore witness to Christ, in like manner, was a wise man, and the doer of great miracles; and that when he was crucified he appeared the third day.

 

Ca. 1195 CE. Michael the Syrian, Patriarch of Antioch, (Syriac) Chronicle. His source for the Testimonium probably being a Syriac translation/adaptation of Eusebius’ Chronicon by James of Edessa, who died ca 708 C.E.). Translation by Shlomo Pines, “An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and its Implications,” in Studies in the History of Religion, edited by G. G. Stroumsa, The Collected Works of Shlomo Pines, (Jerusalem: The Magnes Press, The Hebrew University, 1996), vol. IV, p. 58, as quoted by Marian Hillar, M.D., Ph.D., www.socinian.org/files/TestimoniumFlavianum.pdf. Bracketed words are corrections according to the citations of Micheal the Syrian contained in the 13th century chronicle of the Coptic Christian al-Makin ibn al-’Amid, as made by Hillar:

 

The writer Josephus also says in his work on the institutions [i.e. Antiquities] of the Jews: In these times there was a wise man named Jesus, if it be fitting for us to call him a man. For he was a worker of glorious deeds and a teacher of truth. Many from among the Jews and the nations became his disciples. He was thought to be the Messiah. But not according to the testimony of the principal [men] of [our] nation. Because of this, Pilate condemned him to the cross, and he died. For those who had loved him did not cease to love him. He appeared to them alive after three days. For the prophets of God had spoken with regard to him of such marvelous things [as these]. And the people of the Christians, named after him, have not disappeared till [this] day.

 

Ca. 1240 CE. Godfridus Viterbiensis Chron. p. 366. e Vers. Rufini.

 

Josephus relates, that a very great war arose between Aretas, king of the Arabians, and Herod [Antipas], on account of the sin which Herod [Antipas] had committed against John. Moreover, the same Josephus writes thus concerning Christ: “There was at this time Jesus, a wise man, if at least it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as willingly hear truth, he also drew over to him many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles: He was Christ. And when Pilate, at the accusation of the principal men of our nation, had decreed that he should be crucified, those that had loved him from the beginning did not forsake him, for he appeared to them the third day alive again, according to what the divinely inspired prophets had foretold, that these and innumerable other miracles should come to pass about him. Moreover, both the name and sect of Christians, who were named from him, continue in being unto this day.

 

Ca. 1360 CE. Nicephorus Callistus Hist. Eccles. lib. i. p. 90, 91

 

Now this [concerning Herod Antipas the tetrarch] is attested to, not only by the book of the holy Gospels, but by Josephus, that lover of truth; who also makes mention of Herodias his brother’s wife, whom Herod [Antipas] had taken away from him, while he was alive, and married her, having divorced his former lawful wife, who was the daughter of Aretas, king of the Petrean Arabians. This Herodias he had married, and lived with her; on which account also, when he had slain John, he made war with Aretas, because his daughter had been dishonourably used; in which war he relates, that all Herod [Antipas]’s army was destroyed, and that he suffered this on account of the most unjust slaughter of John. He also adds, that John was a most righteous man. Moreover, he makes mention of his baptism, agreeing in all points thereto relating with the Gospel. He also informs us, that Herod lost his kingdom on account of Herodias, with whom also he was condemned to be banished to Vienne, which was their place of exile, and a city bordering upon Gaul, and lying near the utmost bounds of the west.

 

Ca. 1450 CE. Harthnanus Schedelius Chron. p. 110.

 

Josephus, the Jew, who was called Flavius, a priest, and the son of Mattathias, a priest of that nation, a most celebrated historian, and very skilful in many things; he was certainly a good man, and of an excellent character, who had the highest opinion of Christ.

 

Ca. 1480 CE. Harthnanus Schedelius Platini de Vitis Pontificum in Christo.

 

I shall avoid mentioning what Christ did until the 30th year of his age, when he was baptized by John, the son of Zacharias, because not only the Gospels and Epistles are full of those acts of his, which he did in the most excellent and most holy manner, but the books of such as were quite remote from his way of living, and acting, and ordaining, are also full of the same.

 

Flavius Josephus himself, who wrote twenty books of the Jewish Antiquities in the Greek tongue, when he had proceeded as far as the government of the emperor Tiberius, says, “There was in those days, Jesus, a certain wise man, if at least it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, and a teacher of men, of such especially as willingly hear the truth. On this account he drew over to him many both of the Jews and Gentiles: He was Christ. But when Pilate, instigated by the principal men of our nation, had decreed that he should be crucified, yet did not those who had loved him from the beginning forsake him: and besides he appeared to them the third day after his death, alive, as the divinely inspired prophets had foretold that these and innumerable other miracles should come to pass about him. And the famous name of Christians, taken from him, as well as their sect, do still continue in being.”

 

The same Josephus also affirms, that John the Baptist, a true prophet, and on that account one that was had in esteem by all men, was slain by Herod [Antipas], the son of Herod the Great, a little before the death of Christ, in the castle of Macherus; not because he was afraid for himself, and his kingdom, as the same author says, but because he had incestuously married Herodias, the sister of Agrippa, and the wife of that excellent person his brother Philip.

 

Ca. 1480 CE. Trithumius Abbas de Scriptor. Eccles.

 

Josephus the Jew, although he continued to be a Jew, did frequently commend the Christians; and in the eighteenth book of Antiquities, wrote down an eminent testimony concerning our Lord Jesus Christ.