Jesus in the Capernaum Synagogue

NA27 Matthew 7:28-29 B Mark 1:21-28 T Mark 1:21-28 D Mark 1:21-28 W Mark 1:21-28 D Luke 4:31-37 T Luke 4:31-37 B Luke 4:31-37









28 Kai /**/
exeplhssonto oi ocloi
epi th didach autou,
29 hn gar didaskwn autouV
wV
exousian ecwn, kai ouc
wV oi grammateiV
autwn.
21 Kai eisporeuontai
eiV Kafarnaoum,



kai euqewV toiV sabbasin
eiselqwn eiV thn sunagwghn
e
didasken.

22 Kai
exeplhssonto
epi th didach autou
hn gar didaskwn autouV
wV
exousian ecwn, kai ouc
wV oi grammateiV
.

23 Kai euquV
hn en th sunagwgh autwn
anqrwpoV en pneumati
akaqartw kai
anekraxen,
24 legwn,
Ti hmin kai su, Ihsou
Nazarhne; HlqeV apolesai
hmaV; Oida se tiV ei o agioV
tou Qeou.
25 Kai epeteimhsen
autw o IhsouV legwn, Feimw-
qhti kai exelqe ex autou.

26 Kai sparaxan auton
to pneuma to akaqarton

kai fwnhsan
fwnh megalh
exhlqen ex autou.

27 Kai eqambhqhsan
a
panteV wste sunzhtein
autouV legontaV,
Ti estin touto; Didach
kainh kat
exousian.
Kai
toiV
pneumasi toiV akaqartoiV
epitassei
*kai upakouousin autw*.
28 Kai exhlqen
h akoh autou euquV
pantacou eiV olhn
thn pericwron

thV GaleilaiaV.
21 Kai eisporeuontai
eiV Kafarnaoum,



kai euquV toiV sabbasin
edidaxen eiV thn sunagwghn.


22 Kai
exeplhssonto
epi th didach autou
hn gar didaskwn autouV
wV
exousian ecwn, kai ouc
wV oi grammateiV
.

23 Kai euquV
hn en th sunagwgh autwn
anqrwpoV en pneumati
akaqartw kai
anekraxen,
24 legwn,
Ti hmin kai soi, Ihsou
Nazarhne; HlqeV apolese
hmaV; Oidamen se tiV ei o agioV
tou Qeou.
25 Kai epetimhsen
autw o IhsouV, Fimw-
qhti kai exelqe ex autou.

26 Kai sparaxan auton
to pneuma to akaqarton

kai fwnhsan
fwnh megalh
exhlqen ex autou.

27 Kai eqambhqhsan
a
panteV wste sunzhtin
autouV legontaV,
Ti estin touto; Didach
kainh kat
exousian.
Kai
toiV
pneumasi toiV akaqartoiV
epitassi
*kai upakouousin autw*.
28 Kai exhlqen
h akoh autou
eiV olhn
thn pericwron

thV IoudaiaV.
21 Kai eisporeuonto
eiV Kafarnaoum,



kai euqewV toiV sabbasin
eiselqwn eiV thn sunagwghn
e
didasken autouV.

22 Kai
exeplhssonto
epi th didach autou
hn gar didaskwn autouV
wV
exousian ecwn, ouc
wV oi grammateiV
.

23 Kai
hn en th sunagwgh
anqrwpoV en pneumati
akaqartw kai
anekraxen,
24 legwn,
Ti hmin kai soi, Ihsou
Nazarhnai; HlqeV apolesai
hmaV; Oida se tiV ei o agioV
tou Qeou.
25 Kai epetimhsen
autw legwn, Fimw-
qhti kai exelqe ek tou
anqrwpou pneuma akaqarton.

26 Kai exhlqen
to pneuma to akaqarton
sparaxan
auton
kai kraxaV fwnh megalh
exhlqen ap autou.

27 Kai eqambhsan
panteV wste sunzhtein
proV eautouV legontaV,
TiV h Didach ekeinh h
kainh auth h exousia oti
kai
toiV
pneumasi toiV akaqartoiV
epitassei
*kai upakouousin autw*.
28 Kai exhlqen
h akoh autou euquV
eiV olhn
thn pericwron

thV GalilaiaV.
21 Kai eisporeuontai
eiV Kafarnaoum,



kai euqewV toiV sabbasin
eiselqwn eiV thn sunagwghn
e
didasken.

22 Kai
exeplhssonto
epi th didach autou
hn gar didaskwn autouV
wV
exousian ecwn, kai ouc
wV oi grammateiV
.

23 Kai
hn en th sunagwgh autwn
anqrwpoV en pneumati
akaqartw kai
anekraxen,
24 legwn,
Ti hmin kai su, Ihsou
Nazarhne; HlqeV hmaV apol-
esai wde; Oida se tiV ei o agioV
tou Qeou.
25 Kai epetimhsen
autw kai eipen, Fimw-
qhti kai exelqe ek tou
anqrwpou pneuma akaqarton.

26 Kai exhlqen
to pneuma
sparaxan
auton
kai anekragen fwnh megalh
kai aphlqen ap autou.

27 Kai eqaumazon
panteV kai sunezhtoun
proV eautouV legonteV,
TiV h Didach hkenh
auth h
exousiastikh autou
kai oti toiV
pneumasin toiV akaqartoiV
epitassei
*kai upakouousin autw*.
28 Kai exhlqen
h akoh autou
pantacou eiV olhn
thn pericwron

thV GalilaiaV.
31 *Kai kathlqen*
eiV Kafarnaoum
polin thV GalilaiaV
thn paraqalassion en orioV
Zaboulwn kai Nefqaleim

kai

hn didaskwn autouV
en toiV sabbasin.
32 Kai
exeplhssonto
epi th didach autou
oti
en
exousia hn o logoV autou.


33 Hn de
en th sunagwgh
anqrwpoV ecwn pneuma
daimoni
on akaqarton kai
anekraxen fwnh megalh legwn,
34 Ti hmin kai soi, Ihsou
Nazarhnai; HlqeV hmaV wde
apolesai; Oida se tiV ei o agioV
tou Qeou.
35 Kai epetimhsen
autw o IhsouV legwn, Fimw-
qhti kai exelqe ap autou.

Kai reiyaV auton
to daimonion
eiV meson

anakraugasan te
exhlqen ap autou
mhden blayan auton.
36 Kai egeneto qamboV megaV epi
pantaV kai sunelaloun
proV allhlouV
legonteV,
TiV o logoV outoV; Oti
en
exousia kai dunamei
epitassei toiV
akaqartoiV pneumasin

*kai exercontai*.
37 Kai exhlqen
h akoh autou
eiV panta topon
thV pericwrou
.
31 *Kai kathlqen*
eiV Kafarnaoum
polin thV GalilaiaV,


kai

hn didaskwn autouV
en toiV sabbasin.
32 Kai
exeplhssonto
epi th didach autou
oti
en
exousia hn o logoV autou.


33 Kai
en th sunagwgh hn
anqrwpoV ecwn pneuma
daimoniou
akaqartou kai
anekraxen fwnh megalh,
34 Ea. Ti hmin kai soi, Ihsou
Nazarhne; HlqeV apolesai
hmaV; Oida se tiV ei o agioV
tou Qeou.
35 Kai epetimhsen
autw o IhsouV legwn, Fimw-
qhti kai exelqe ap autou.

Kai riyan auton
to daimonion
eiV to meson


exhlqen ap autou
mhden blayan auton.
36 Kai egeneto qamboV epi
pantaV kai sunelaloun
proV allhlouV
legonteV,
TiV o logoV outoV; Oti
en
exousia kai dunamei
epitassei toiV
akaqartoiV pneumasin

*kai exercontai*.
37 Kai exeporeueto
hcoV peri
autou
eiV panta topon
thV pericwrou
.
31 *Kai kathlqen*
eiV Kafarnaoum
polin thV GaleilaiaV,


kai

hn didaskwn autouV
en toiV sabbasin.
32 Kai
exeplhssonto
epi th didach autou
oti
en
exousia hn o logoV autou.


33 Kai
en th sunagwgh hn
anqrwpoV ecwn pneuma
daimoniou
akaqartou kai
anekraxen fwnh megalh,
34 Ea. Ti hmin kai soi, Ihsou
Nazarhne; HlqeV apolesai
hmaV; Oida se tiV ei o agioV
tou Qeou.
35 Kai epeteimhsen
autw o IhsouV legwn, Feimw-
qhti kai exelqe ap autou.

Kai reiyan auton
to daimonion
eiV to meson


exhlqen ap autou
mhden blayan auton.
36 Kai egeneto qamboV epi
pantaV kai sunelaloun
proV allhlouV
legonteV,
TiV o logoV outoV; Oti
en
exousia kai dunamei
epitassei toiV
akaqartoiV pneumasin

*kai exercontai*.
37 Kai exeporeueto
hcoV peri
autou
eiV panta topon
thV pericwrou
.

Notes:

Here are a few observations about the Capernaum Demoniac pericope:

1. The body of the pericope in Mark 1:22a,23-25/Luke 4:32a,33-35a is highly conserved. The word-for-word parallel in Mt 7:29/Mk 1:22b makes the most sense as an insert into Mark, particularly since Matthew lacks this pericope. The conclusion in Mk 1:26-28/Lk 4:35b-37 is much less conserved, although the two versions are clearly related. This may imply that the conclusion is a more recent expansion than the core of the pericope.

2. The text of D Mark and W Mark share a small insertion at 1:25 "out of the man, unclean spirit", showing that they are members of a "Western" tradition. There is a doublet in D Mark 1:27 where the text appears to have both the Western and Alexandrian versions (ekeinh h kainh auth h). W Mark has only the Western version. This pattern occurs frequently: W Mark will have the Alexandrian or Western text, but not both, while D Mark appears to be a mixture of the Western and Alexandrian text types. This is the primary reason the D text is mildly expansive in Mark.

3. Certain pericopes in the synoptics end in characteristic phrases. For example, pericopes where various disciples follow Jesus often end with the phrase "and they followed him". The ending of the Capernaum Demoniac pericope is similar. Mark 1:27, ends with the phrase "and they obey him" (kai upakouousin autw). Luke has a somewhat different version. In Lk 4:31, Jesus "goes down into" Capernaum (Kai kathlqen) and in Lk 4:36, at the end of the pericope, the demons "come out" (kai exercontai).

4. The word "immediately" or "straightaway" is used frequently by Mark, along with the use of verbs in the historic present, to convey a sense that events are happening in the present time. In the Alexandrian text, this word is almost always spelled euquV. The word is spelled euqewV in W Mark, in common with Matthew and Luke, and it occurs far less frequently. D Mark has both spellings, as might be expected for a mixture of the two text types.

5. The word kraxaV "crying out" in D Mark 1:26 is probably original. It appears in the Western and Byzantine text and a form of the verb is found in Western Luke.

6. The small insert in D Luke 4:31 thn paraqalassion en orioV Zaboulwn kai Nefqaleim "upon the sea coast in the borders of Zebulon and Naphtali" is found in the corresponding passage in the Diatessaron and Matthew 4:13.

7. There are many verses in D Luke where the text is more similar to Mark than Alexandrian Luke. An example of this is Lk 4:37a, where D Luke has Kai exhlqen h akoh autou in agreement with Mark, while Alexandrian Luke has Kai exeporeueto hcoV peri autou.

8. Note that there is a subtle difference between text types from left to right. D Mark shares some harmonistic readings with Alexandrian Mark, while W Mark has some vocabulary terms more characteristic of Luke. Similarities between W Mark and D Luke are shown in pink.

9. Mark 1:28 has the word spreading throughout Judea rather than Galilee. The reading was eventually changed to Galilee by corrector C2. This may be evidence of an early aporia that was changed to make the location consistent with Capernaum.

10. B Mark 1:25 and 1:28 show evidence of two harmonized readings. B Mark 1:25 has IhsouV legwn whereas has IhsouV and D has legwn. In Mk 1:28, B has euquV pantacou. D Mark has euquV but not and W. W Mark has pantacou but not and D. These are examples of two textual variations in Alexandrian Mark that cross over to the Western text types.

11. Mark refers to the demon as an unclean spirit (pneuma akaqarton) and Luke uses a semitic double noun "an unclean spirit, a demon". This semitic reference to a demon as an unclean spirit also occurs in the Geresene Demoniac. Both pericopes are public exorcisms but only the demons know the Messianic Secret - that Jesus is the Son of God. This may be evidence of an early Pauline "Son of God" stratum in Mark.