Healing of a Man with a Withered Hand

NA27 Matthew 12:9-14 B Mark 3:1-6 T Mark 3:1-6 D Mark 3:1-6 W Mark 3:1-6 D Luke 6:6-11 T Luke 6:6-11 B Luke 6:6-11
9Kai metabaV ekeiqen

hlqen
eiV thn sunagwghn autwn.

10kai idou anqrwpoV
ceira ecwn xhran.

kai ephrwthsan auton
legonteV,

Ei exestin toiV sabbasin
qerapeusai;
ina kathgorhswsin autou.






11O de eipen autoiV,

TiV estai ex umwn anqrwpoV
oV exei probaton en
kai ean empesh touto
toiV sabbasin eiV boqunon,
ouci krathsei auto
kai egerei;

12posw oun diaferei
anqrwpoV probatou,
wste exestin toiV sabbasin
kalwV poiein
.
13tote legei tw anqrwpw,
Ekteinon sou thn ceira.
kai exeteinen
kai apekatestaqh
ugihV wV h allh.
14ExelqonteV de
oi Farisaioi

sumboulion
elabon
kat autou
opwV auton apoleswsin
.


1Kai eishlqen palin
eiV sunagwghn

kai hn ekei anqrwpoV
exhrammenhn ecwn
thn ceira.
2kai parethroun autou


ei toiV sabbasin
qerapeusei auton.
ina kathgorhswsin autou.


3kai legei tw anqrwpw
tw thn ceira econti xhran,
Egeire eiV to meson
.

4Kai legei autoiV,

Exestin toiV sabbasin
agaqopoihsai
h kakopoihsai,
yuchn swsai h apo
kteinai;
oi de esiwpwn.
5Kai peribleyamenoV
autouV
met arghV,
sunlupoumenoV
epi th pwrwsei
thV kardiaV autwn

legei tw anqrwpw,
Ekteinon thn ceira [sou].
kai exeteinen
kai apekatestaqh
h ceir autou.
6Kai exelqonteV
oi Fareisaioi
euquV
meta twn Hpwdianwn

sumboulion edidoun
kat autou
opwV auton apoleswsin
.


1Kai eishlqen palin
eiV sunagwghn

kai hn ekei anqrwpoV
exhrammenhn ecwn
thn ceira.
2kai parethroun autou


ei en toiV sabbasin
qerapeuei auton.
ina kathgorhswsin autou.


3kai legei tw anqrwpw
tw thn xhran cira econti,
Egeire eiV to meson
.

4Kai legei autoiV,

Exestin toiV sabbasin
agaqon poihsai
h kakopoihsai,
yuchn swsai h apo
ktinai;
oi de esiwpwn.
5Kai peribleyamenoV
autouV
met arghV,
sunlupoumenoV
epi th pwrwsei
thV kardi autwn

legei tw anqrwpw,
Ektinon thn cira sou.
kai exetinen
kai apekatestaqh
h cir autou.
6Kai exelqonteV
oi Farisaioi
euquV
meta twn Hpwdianwn

sumboulion epoihsan
kat autou
opwV auton apoleswsin
.


1Kai eishlqen palin
eiV thn sunagwghn

kai hn ekei anqrwpoV
xhran ecwn
thn ceira.
2kai parethrounto auton


ei en toiV sabbasin
qerapeusei.
ina kathgorhsousin auton.


3kai legei tw anqrwpw
tw econti thn ceira exhramenhn,
Egeire kai sthqei en mes
w.

4Kai eipen proV autouV,

Exestin en toiV sabbasin
ti agaqon poihsai
h kakopoihsai,
yuchn swsai mallon h apo
kteinai;
oi de esiwpwn.
5Kai peribleyamenoV
autouV
met arghV,
sunlupoumenoV
epi th nekrwsei
thV kardiaV autwn

legei tw anqrwpw,
Ekteinon thn ceira sou.
kai exeteinen
kai apekatestaqh
h ceir autou euqewV.
6ExelqonteV de
oi Farisaioi

meta twn Hpwdianwn
sumboulion poiounteV
kat autou
opwV auton apoleswsin
.


1Kai eiselqontoV autou
eiV thn sunagwghn

ercetai anqrwpoV
proV auton ecwn xhran
thn ceira.
2kai parethrounto auton


ei toiV sabbasin
qerapeuei.
ina kathgorhswsin autou.


3kai legei tw anqrwpw
tw econti thn ceira exhran,
Egeire ek tou mes
ou.

4Kai legei autoiV,

Exestin toiV sabbasin
agaqon poihsai
h ou,
yuchn swsai h
apolesai;
oi de esiwpwn.
5Kai peribleyamenoV
autouV
met arghV,

epi th pwrwsei
thV kardiaV autwn

legei tw anqrwpw,
Ekteinon thn ceira sou.
kai exeteinen
kai apekatestaqh
h ceir autou.
6ExelqonteV de
oi Farisaioi

meta twn Hpwdianwn
sumboulion epoiounto
kat autou
opwV auton apoleswsin
.


6 Kai eiselqontoV autou palin
eiV thn sunagwghn
sabbatw en h
hn anqrwpoV
xhran ecwn
thn ceira.
7parethrounto auton
oi grammateiV
kai oi Farisaioi

ei en tw sabbatw
qerapeuei,
ina eurwsin kathgorhsai autou.
8autoV de geinwskwn
touV dialogismouV autwn
,
lege (andri)
tw thn ceira econti xhran,
Egeirou kai sthqi en tw mes
w.
kai anastaV estaqh.
9Eipen de o IhsouV proV autouV,
Eperwthsw umaV
ei
exestin tw sabbatw
agaqopoihsai
h kakopoihsai,
yuchn swsai h apo
lesai;
oi de esiwpwn.
10Kai peribleyamenoV
autouV
pantaV en orgh,



legei tw anqrwpw,
Ekteinon thn ceira sou.
kai exeteinen
kai apekatestaqh
h ceir autou wV kai h allh.
11Autoi de
eplhsqhsan anoiaV

kai dielogizonto
proV allhlouV

pwV apoleswsin auton.
6Egeneto de
en eterw sabbatw

eiselqin auton
eiV thn sunagwghn
kai didaskin,
kai hn anqrwpoV ekei
kai h ceir autou
h dexia hn
xhra.
7parethroun de auton
oi grammateiV
kai oi Farisaioi

ei en tw sabbatw
qerapeuei,
ina eurwsin kathgorin autou.
8autoV de hdei
touV dialogismouV autwn
,
eipen de tw andri
tw thn xhran econti thn ceira,
Egeire kai sthqi eiV to meson
.
kai anastaV esth.
9Eipen de o IhsouV proV autouV,
Eperwtw umaV
ei
exestin tw sabbatw
agaqopoihsai
h kakopoihsai,
yuchn swsai h apo
lesai;

10Kai peribleyamenoV
pantaV autouV




eipen tw anqrwpw,
Ektinon thn ceira sou.
o de exeteinen
kai apekatesth
h ceir autou.
11Autoi de
eplhsqhsan anoiaV

kai dielaloun
proV allhlouV
ti an poihseien tw Ihsou.

6Egeneto de
en eterw sabbatw

eiselqein auton
eiV thn sunagwghn
kai didaskein,
kai hn anqrwpoV ekei
kai h ceir autou
h dexia hn
xhra.
7parethrounto de auton
oi grammateiV
kai oi Fareisaioi

ei en tw sabbatw
qerapeusei,
ina eurwsin kathgorein autou.
8autoV de hdei
touV dialogismouV autwn
,
eipen de tw andri
tw xhran econti thn ceira,
Egeire kai sthqi eiV to meson
.
kai anastaV esth.
9Eipen de IhsouV proV autouV,
Eperwtw umaV
ei
exestin tw sabbatw
agaqopoihsai
h kakopoihsai,
yuchn swsai h apo
lesai;

10Kai peribleyamenoV
pantaV autouV




eipen autw,
Ekteinon thn ceira sou.
o de epoihsen
kai apekatestaqh
h ceir autou.
11Autoi de
eplhsqhsan anoiaV

kai dielaloun
proV allhlouV
ti an poihsaien tw Ihsou.

Notes:

1. The setting of this pericope is Jesus entering a synagogue and healing a man with a withered hand on the Sabbath. In / B Mark 3:1, Jesus again entered a synagogue and a man was there having a withered hand. This is the same Sabbath as the pericope of Plucking Grain on the Sabbath in Mk 2:23-28, Mt12:1-8, whereas / B Luke 6:6 states explicitly that this is another Sabbath. In D / W Mk 3:1, Mt 12:9 and Lk 6:6, Jesus entered the synagogue, presumably the same synagogue he entered previously to cast out a demon in Mk 1:21, Lk 4:31-37. This is a minor agreement between Matthew and Luke against Alexandrian Mark, although Matthew has Jesus entering their synagogue. The action in W Mark and D Luke is in the present tense kai eiselqontoV autou eiV thn sunagwghn (and entering him into the synagogue) and W Mark further adds ercetai anqrwpoV proV auton (comes a man to him). The present tense is probably original and the sense is different - the man comes to him in W Mark rather than just happening to be there. The great variation in word order of the expression xhran ecwn thn ceira (withered having the hand) is striking. D Mark and D Luke have the same version, whereas / B Lk 6:6 adds the additional detail that it is the right hand that is withered. Having a withered right hand is a Hebrew idiom for being in a permanent state of sin. This is an example of a type of Semitism that is often found in Luke.

2. In Mark 3:2, they (presumably still the Pharisees) were watching him to see if he would heal on the Sabbath so that they might accuse him. Mark has incorporated this healing miracle as part of a controversy over doing what is not permitted on the Sabbath. The story bookends the Healing of the Paralytic in Mk 2:1-12 and was probably meant to serve as another example of healing being equivalent to the forgiveness of sin. "Watching" occurs in two forms in Mark and Luke, parethroun (they watched) and parethrounto (they were watching) as well as "healing", qerapeusei (he will heal) and qerapeuei (he heals). The two versions of each expression are found in both Alexandrian and Western text-types. parethrounto occurs in Western Mark and Luke and it's presence in B Mark and Luke may point to another example of the tendency of B to harmonize between text-types.

3. In Mark 12:3, Jesus commands the man with the withered hand, Egeire eiV to meson (Rise up into the midst!). Again, there is much variation between texts. W Mark seems the most primitive Egeire ek tou mesou (Rise up in the middle!). D Mark adds the additional detail of standing similar to Luke 6:8 Egeire kai sthqei en mesw (Rise up and stand in the middle!). Luke adds the additional detail that Jesus knew their thoughts. In / B Lk 6:8, this knowledge is intuitive autoV de hdei touV dialogismouV autwn (but he understood the thoughts of them), whereas in D Luke the knowledge is literal autoV de geinwskwn touV dialogismouV autwn (but he knew the thoughts of them). D has the harder reading and therefore is probably original. Matthew begins the questioning by the onlookers in the synagogue in the previous verse (Mt 12:10), so he omits this verse.

4. Mark 3:4,5a and Luke 6:9,10a are highly similar, but the verses are missing from Matthew. This material appears to have been excised and replaced in Matthew 12:11,12 by a teaching about rescuing a domestic animal from a pit on the Sabbath that takes up the same amount of space. The pericope in Matthew is related to the story about the Man With Dropsy in Luke 14:1-6 and will be considered separately. In Mk 3:4 / Lk 6:9, Jesus asks if it is permitted on the Sabbath to do good or evil, to restore life or destroy it. The observers are silent in Mark and D Luke. In Mk 3:5 / Lk 6:10, Jesus looks around (peribleyamenoV) in anger (met arghV / en orgh) in Mark and D Luke but not Alexandrian Luke. Mark adds the further detail epi th pwrwsei thV kardiaV autwn (for their hearts were hardened). This expression is a characteristic of Mark and is repeated after the miracle of the Feeding of the 5000. The word sunlupoumenoV (being deeply grieved) does not appear in W Mark. This suggests a possible conflation of two versions - a compassionate and an angry Jesus - similar to the Cleansing of the Leper.

5. In Mt 12:13, Mk 3:5b, Lk 6:10b, Jesus tells the man to extend his hand and it is restored. The text is highly conserved between Mark and Matthew. Matthew adds the additional detail that it was restored ugihV wV h allh (healthy as the other). The tradition in Matthew is divided however, with Mt 12:13 having only ugihV and some Latin witnesses (b,c,ff,g,h) and the Syriac witnesses (Syr-C, Syr-P, Syr-S) having wV h allh. D Luke 6:10b adds the second part of this phrase to the original ending wV kai h allh (as also the other) while W Luke 6:10b has only the first part ugihV. The text of Lk 6:10 has an intermediate form between B and D (D is identical to Mark except the last clause). Luke has a tendency to harmonize to Matthew and or Mark in the words of Jesus.

6. The ending in Mt 12:14, Mk 3:6 has the Pharisees (along with the Herodians in Mark) plotting how to destroy Jesus. The verse is almost invariant except for the single word elabon (took) in Matthew, edidoun (held) in B Mark, or epoihsan (made) in Mark. Luke 6:11 has a different ending in which the scribes and Pharisees are filled with fury and discuss what they might do to Jesus. The ending is similar to Lk 4:28 where the congregants are filled with anger and Jesus is driven out of the synagogue.

7. The pericope of Mark 3:1-6 and parallels concludes Mark's teaching unit about Jesus doing what is not permitted on the Sabbath. The healing of the man with the withered hand apparently violated a prohibition against working on the Sabbath, but this misses the point entirely. Jesus did not heal the man by touching him, so no work was performed. Further, Jesus' rhetorical question about whether it is better to save life or destroy it does not make sense in this context because the man's injury was not life threatening. The story does make sense, however, if the real issue is over Jesus' authority to forgive sin manifested through healing. Thus, the series of confrontation stories ends as it began with the healing of the paralytic and the implication of blasphemy.