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These lists of ancient individuals contain links to the corresponding excavations on this site.
Do you know ancient Greek? You can help transcribe the Oxyrhynchus papyri.

Master list.


The synoptic project.

The analytic project.
Pagan and Jewish testimonia.
Christian sources.


Ancient local texts according to Streeter.
The Greek alphabet.
The Latin alphabet.
The historical method.
Books in the ancient world.
The advent of Jesus.
Jewish texts as background for Jesus.
Words and deeds.
The scholarly game.
The Olivet discourse.
A fourfold typology of literary relationships.
Preserving the Dead Sea scrolls.
The consummation of the age.
The real and the ideal.
Expressions of eternity.
The infinitive absolute in Hebrew.
The two ages.
The twelve Caesars.
Two apostolic catechismal catenae.
The importance of understanding your translation.

The Pauline appearance list.

1 Corinthians 15.3-8:

Παρεδωκα γαρ υμιν εν πρωτοις ο και παρελαβον,

οτι Χριστος απεθανεν υπερ των αμαρτιων ημων κατα τας γραφας,
και οτι εταφη,
και οτι εγηγερται τη ημερα τη τριτη κατα τας γραφας,

The twelve.
The 500.

και οτι ωφθη Κηφα,
ειτα τοις δωδεκα·
επειτα ωφθη επανω πεντακοσιοις αδελφοις εφαπαξ, εξ ων οι πλειονες μενουσιν εως αρτι, τινες δε εκοιμηθησαν·

The apostles.

επειτα ωφθη Ιακωβω,
ειτα τοις αποστολοις πασιν·
εσχατον δε παντων ωσπερει τω εκτρωματι ωφθη καμοι.

For I delivered to you among the very foremost things what I also received, that Christ died for the sake of our sins, according to the scriptures, and that he was buried, and that he was raised on the third day according to the scriptures, and that he was seen by Cephas, then by the twelve; afterward he was seen by more than five hundred brethren at once, most of whom remain until now, but some have fallen asleep; afterward he was seen by James, then by all the apostles; but last of all he was seen by me, as by one untimely born.

The synoptic disciple lists.

Matthew 10.2-4:

Simon called Peter. Andrew his brother.
James of Zebedee. John his brother.
Philip. Bartholomew.
Thomas. Matthew the tax-collector.
James of Alphaeus. Thaddaeus.
Simon the Cananaean. Judas Iscariot.

Των δε δωδεκα αποστολων τα ονοματα εστιν ταυτα· Πρωτος Σιμων ο λεγομενος Πετρος και Ανδρεας ο αδελφος αυτου, και Ιακωβος ο του Ζεβεδαιου και Ιωαννης ο αδελφος αυτου, Φιλιππος και Βαρθολομαιος, Θωμας και Μαθθαιος ο τελωνης, Ιακωβος ο του Αλφαιου και Θαδδαιος, Σιμων ο Καναναιος και Ιουδας ο Ισκαριωτης ο και παραδους αυτον.

But the names of the twelve apostles are these: First Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother, and James of Zebedee and John his brother, Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas and Matthew the tax-collector, James of Alphaeus and Thaddaeus, Simon the Cananaean and Judas Iscariot, the one who also betrayed him.

Mark 3.16-19:

Simon Peter. James of Zebedee.
John the brother of James. Andrew.
Philip. Bartholomew.
Matthew the tax-collector. Thomas.
James of Alphaeus. Thaddaeus.
Simon the Cananaean. Judas Iscariot.

Και εποιησεν τους δωδεκα, και επεθηκεν ονομα τω Σιμωνι Πετρον, και Ιακωβον τον του Ζεβεδαιου και Ιωαννην τον αδελφον του Ιακωβου, και επεθηκεν αυτοις ονομα Βοανηργες, ο εστιν υιοι βροντης, και Ανδρεαν, και Φιλιππον, και Βαρθολομαιον, και Μαθθαιον, και Θωμαν, και Ιακωβον τον του Αλφαιου, και Θαδδαιον, και Σιμωνα τον Καναναιον, και Ιουδαν Ισκαριωθ, ος και παρεδωκεν αυτον.

And he made the twelve, and he lent the name Peter to Simon, and James of Zebedee, and John the brother of James, and he lent them the names Boanerges, that is, sons of thunder, and Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Cananaean, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.

Luke 6.13-16:

Simon named Peter. Andrew his brother.
James. John.
Philip. Bartholomew.
Matthew. Thomas.
James of Alphaeus. Simon the zealot.
Judas of James. Judas Iscariot.

Και οτε εγενετο ημερα προσεφωνησεν τους μαθητας αυτου, και εκλεξαμενος απ αυτων δωδεκα, ους και αποστολους ωνομασεν, Σιμωνα, ον και ωνομασεν Πετρον, και Ανδρεαν τον αδελφον αυτου, και Ιακωβον, και Ιωαννην, και Φιλιππον, και Βαρθολομαιον, και Μαθθαιον, και Θωμαν, και Ιακωβον Αλφαιου, και Σιμωνα τον καλουμενον Ζηλωτην, και Ιουδαν Ιακωβου, και Ιουδαν Ισκαριωθ, ος εγενετο προδοτης.

And, when it became day, he summoned to himself his disciples, and selected from among them twelve, whom he also named apostles, Simon, whom he also named Peter, and Andrew his brother, and James, and John, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James of Alphaeus, and Simon, the one called the zealot, and Judas of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.

Acts 1.13:

Peter. John.
James. Andrew.
Philip. Thomas.
Bartholomew. Matthew.
James of Alphaeus. Simon the zealot.
Judas of James.

Και οτε εισηλθον, εις το υπερωον ανεβησαν ου ησαν καταμενοντες, ο τε Πετρος και Ιωαννης και Ιακωβος και Ανδρεας, Φιλιππος και Θωμας, Βαρθολομαιος και Μαθθαιος, Ιακωβος Αλφαιου και Σιμων ο ζηλωτης και Ιουδας Ιακωβου.

And, when they went in, they ascended to the upper room where they were remaining, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James of Alphaeus and Simon the zealot and Judas of James.

The Suetonian list of twelve Caesars.

Table of contents, Twelve Caesars:

  1. Divus Iulius.
  2. Divus Augustus.
  3. Tiberius.
  4. Caligula.
  5. Divus Claudius.
  6. Nero.
  7. Galba.
  8. Otho.
  9. Vitellius.
  10. Divus Vespasianus.
  11. Divus Titus.
  12. Domitianus.
Divine Julius, divine Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, divine Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, divine Vespasian, divine Titus, Domitian.

The Hegesippan list of heresies.

Eusebius, History of the Church 4.22.4-7:

Και μετα το μαρτυρησαι Ιακωβον τον δικαιον ως και ο κυριος επι τω αυτω λογω, παλιν ο εκ θειου αυτου Συμεων ο του Κλωπα καθισταται επισκοπος, ον προεθεντο παντες οντα ανεψιον του κυριου δευτερον. δια τουτο εκαλουν την εκκλησιαν παρθενον ουπω γαρ εφθαρτο ακοαις ματαιαις.

The same author also describes the beginnings of the heresies which arose in his time in the following words: And after James the just had suffered martyrdom, as the Lord had also on the same account, Symeon, the son of the uncle of the Lord, Clopas, was appointed the next bishop. All proposed him as second bishop because he was a cousin of the Lord. Therefore they called the church a virgin, for it was not yet corrupted by vain discourses.

Simon and the Simonians.
Cleobius and the Cleobians.
Dositheus and the Dositheans.
Gorthaeus and the Goratheni.
Masbotheus and the Masbothaeans.
Menandrianists (Menander).
Marcionists (Marcion).
Carpocratians (Carpocrates).
Valentinians (Valentinus).
Basilidians (Basilides).
Saturnilians (Saturnilus or Saturninus).

Αρχεται δ ο Θεβουθις δια το μη γενεσθαι αυτον επισκοπον υποφθειρειν. απο των επτα αιρεσεων και αυτος ην εν τω λαω, αφ ων Σιμων, οθεν οι Σιμωνιανοι, και Κλεοβιος, οθεν Κλεοβιηνοι, και Δοσιθεος, οθεν Δοσιθιανοι, και Γορθαιος, οθεν Γορθηωνοι, και Μασβωθεος, οθεν Μασβωθαιοι. απο τουτων Μενανδριανισται, και Μαρκιωνισται, και Καρποκρατιανοι, και Ουαλεντινιανοι, και Βασιλειδιανοι, και Σατορνιλιανοι, εκαστος ιδιως και ετερως ιδιαν δοξαν παρεισηγαγησαν.

But Thebuthis, because he was not made bishop, began to corrupt it. He also was sprung from the seven sects among the people, like Simon, from whom came the Simonians, and Cleobius, from whom came the Cleobians, and Dositheus, from whom came the Dositheans, and Gorthaeus, from whom came the Goratheni, and Masbotheus, from whom came the Masbothaeans. From them sprang the Menandrianists, and Marcionists, and Carpocratians, and Valentinians, and Basilidians, and Saturnilians. Each introduced privately and separately his own peculiar opinion.

Απο τουτων ψευδοχριστοι, ψευδοπροφηται, ψευδαποστολοι οι τινες εμερισαν την ενωσιν της εκκλησιας φθοριμαιοις λογοις κατα του Θεου και κατα του Χριστου αυτου.

From them came false Christs, false prophets, false apostles, who divided the unity of the church by corrupt doctrines uttered against God and against his Christ.


Ετι δ ο αυτος και τας παλαι γεγενημενας παρα Ιουδαιοις αιρεσεις ιστορει λεγων· Ησαν δε γνωμαι διαφοροι εν τη τη περιτομη εν υιοις Ισραηλ, των κατα της φυλης Ιουδα και του Χριστου, αυται· Εσσαιοι, Γαλιλαιοι, Ημεροβαπτισται, Μασβωθαιοι, Σαμαρειται, Σαδδουκαιοι, Φαρισαιοι.

The same writer also records the ancient heresies which arose among the Jews, in the following words: There were, moreover, various opinions in the circumcision, among the children of Israel. The following were those that were opposed to the tribe of Judah and the Christ: Essenes, Galileans, Hemerobaptists, Masbothaeans, Samaritans, Sadducees, Pharisees.

The Hieronymian list of illustrious men.

Table of contents, On Famous Men:

Simon Peter, son of John.
James the brother of the Lord.
Matthew the evangelist.
Jude the brother of James.
Paul the apostle.
Barnabas surnamed Joseph.
Luke the evangelist.
Mark the evangelist.
John the apostle and evangelist.
Hermas of Rome.
Philo of Alexandria.
Lucius Annaeus Seneca the senator.
Josephus the son of Matthias.
Justus of Tiberias.
Clement of Rome.
Ignatius of Antioch.
Polycarp of Smyrna.
Papias of Hierapolis.
Quadratus of Athens.
Aristides of Athens.
Agrippa Castor.
Hegesippus the historian.
Justin Martyr.
Melito of Sardis.
Theophilus of Antioch.
Apollinaris of Hierapolis.
Dionysius of Corinth.
Pinytus of Gnosus in Crete.
Tatian the heresiarch.
Philip of Gortina in Crete.
Bardesanes the heresiarch.
Victor of Rome.
Irenaeus of Lyons.
Pantaenus of Alexandria.
Rhodo the disciple of Tatian.
Clement of Alexandria.
Serapion of Antioch.
Apollonius the senator.
Theophilus of Caesarea.
Bacchylus of Corinth.
Polycrates of Ephesus.
Tertullian of Carthage.
Origen of Alexandria.
Ammonius of Alexandria.
Ambrose of Alexandria.
Trypho the pupil of Origen.
Minucius Felix of Rome.
Gaius of Rome.
Berillus of Bostra.
Alexander of Cappadocia.
Julius Africanus.
Geminus of Antioch.
Theodorus (Gregory) of Neocaesarea.
Cornelius of Rome.
Cyprian of Carthage.
Pontius of Carthage.
Dionysius of Alexandria.
Novatianus the heresiarch.
Malchion of Antioch.
Archelaus of Mesopotamia.
Anatolius of Laodicea.
Victorinus of Petau.
Pamphilus of Caesarea.
Pierius of Alexandria.
Lucianus of Antioch.
Phileas of Thmuis in Egypt.
Arnobius of Sicca in Africa.
Firmianus (Lactantius) of Nicomedia.
Eusebius of Caesarea.

Simon Petrus.
Iacobus, frater domini.
Matthaeus, qui et Levi.
Iuda, frater Iacobi.
Paulus, qui [et] ante Saulus.
Barnabas, qui et Ioseph.
Lucas, evangelista.
Marcus, evangelista.
Ioannes, apostolus et evangelista.
Philon Iudaeus.
Lucius Anneus Seneca.
Iosephus, Matthiae filius.
Iustus Tiberiensis.
Clemens, episcopus.
Ignatius, episcopus.
Polycarpus, episcopus.
Papias, episcopus.
Quadratus, episcopus.
Aristides, philosophus.
Agrippa, qui et Castor [Castoris].
Hegesippus, historicus.
Iustinus, philosophus.
Melito, episcopus.
Theophilus, episcopus.
Apollinaris, episcopus.
Dionysius, episcopus.
Pinitus [Pinytus], episcopus.
Tatianus, haeresiarches.
Philippus, episcopus.
Bardesanes, haeresiarches.
Victor, episcopus.
Irenaeus, episcopus.
Panthaenus, philosophus.
Rhodon, Tatiani discipulus.
Clemens, presbyter.
Serapion, episcopus.
Apollonius, alius senator.
Theophilus, alius episcopus.
Baccillus [Bacchelus], episcopus.
Polycrates, episcopus.
Heraclitus, episcopus.
Tertullianus, presbyter.
Origenes, qui et Adamantius, presbyter.
Ammonius, presbyter.
Ambrosius, diaconus.
Tryphon, Origenis discipulus.
Minucius Felix.
Berillus [Beryllus], episcopus.
Hippolytus [Hypolitus], episcopus.
Alexander, episcopus.
Iulianus Africanus.
Geminus, presbyter.
Theodorus, qui et Gregorius, episcopus.
Cornelius, episcopus.
Cyprianus, episcopus.
Pontius, diaconus.
Dionysius, episcopus.
Novatianus, haeresiarches.
Malchion, presbyter.
Archelaus, episcopus.
Anatolius, episcopus.
Victorinus, episcopus.
Pamphilus, presbyter.
Pierius, presbyter.
Lucianus, presbyter.
Phileas, episcopus.
Arnobius, rhetor.
Firmianus, rhetor.
Eusebius, episcopus.

Simon Peter; James, brother of the Lord; Matthew, who is also Levi; Jude, brother of James; Paul, who was formerly Saul; Barnabas, surnamed Joseph; Luke, the evangelist; Mark, the evangelist; John, the apostle and evangelist; Hermas; Philo the Jew; Lucius Annaeus Seneca; Josephus, son of Matthias; Justus of Tiberias; Clemens, the bishop; Ignatius, the bishop; Polycarp, the bishop; Papias, the bishop; Quadratus, the bishop; Aristides, the philosopher; Agrippa Castor; Hegesippus, the historian; Justin, the philosopher; Melito, the bishop; Theophilus, the bishop; Apollinaris, the bishop; Dionysius, the bishop; Pinytus, the bishop; Tatian the heresiarch; Philip, the bishop; Musanus; Modestus; Bardesanes, the heresiarch; Victor, the bishop; Irenaeus, the bishop; Pantaenus the philosopher; Rhodo, the disciple of Tatian; Clemens, the presbyter; Miltiades; Apollonius; Serapion, the bishop; Apollonius, the senator; Theophilus, another bishop; Bacchylus, the bishop; Polycrates, the bishop; Heraclitus; Maximus; Candidus; Appion; Sextus; Arabianus; Judas; Tertullian, the presbyter; Origen, who is also Adamantius; Ammonius; Ambrose, the deacon; Trypho, the pupil of Origen; Minucius Felix; Gaius; Berillus, the bishop; Hippolytus, the bishop; Alexander, the bishop; Julius, the African; Geminus, the presbyter; Theodorus, who is also Gregory; Cornelius, the bishop; Cyprian, the bishop; Pontius, the deacon; Dionysius, the bishop; Novatianus, the heresiarch; Malchion, the presbyter; Archelaus, the bishop; Anatolius, the bishop; Victorinus, the bishop; Pamphilus, the presbyter; Pierius, the presbyter; Lucianus, the presbyter; Phileas, the bishop; Arnobius, the rhetorician; Firmianus (Lactantius), the rhetorician; Eusebius, the bishop.

Reticius, episcopus Eduorum.
Methodius, episcopus.
Iuvencus, presbyter.
Eustathius, episcopus.
Marcellus, episcopus.
Athanasius, episcopus.
Antonius, monachus.
Basilius, episcopus.
Theodorus, episcopus.
Eusebius, alius episcopus.
Triphilus, episcopus.
Donatus, haeresiarches.
Asterius, philosophus.
Lucifer, episcopus.
Eusebius, alius episcopus.
Fortunatianus, episcopus.
Acacius, episcopus.
Serapion, episcopus.
Hilarius, episcopus.
Victorinus, rhetor Petavionensis.
Titus, episcopus.
Damasus, episcopus.
Apollinaris, episcopus.
Gregorius, episcopus.
Pacianus, episcopus.
Photinus, haeresiarches.
Foebadius, episcopus.

Didymus, ο βλεπων.
Optatus, episcopus.
Acilius Severus, senator.
Cyrillus, episcopus.
Euzoius, episcopus.
Epiphanius, episcopus.
Ephrem, diaconus.
Basilius, alter episcopus.
Gregorius, alius episcopus.
Lucius, episcopus.
Diodorus, episcopus.
Eunomius, haeresiarches.
Priscillianus, episcopus.
Latronianus, episcopus.
Tiberianus, episcopus.
Ambrosius, episcopus Mediolan.
Evagrius, episcopus.
Ambrosius, Didymi discipulus.
Maximus, ex philosopho, episcopus.
Gregorius, alius episcopus.
Ioannes, presbyter.
Gelasius, episcopus.
Theotimus, episcopus.
Dexter, Paciani filius, nunc praefectus praetorio.
Amphilochius, episcopus.

Reticus, the bishop of Autun; Methodius, the bishop; Juvencus, the presbyter; Eustathius, the bishop; Marcellus, the bishop; Athanasius, the bishop; Antonius, the monk; Basilius, the bishop; Theodorus, the bishop; Eusebius, another bishop; Triphylius, the bishop; Donatus, the heresiarch; Asterius, the philosopher; Lucifer, the bishop; Eusebius, another bishop; Fortunatianus, the bishop; Acacius, the bishop; Serapion, the bishop; Hilary, the bishop; Victorinus, the rhetorician; Titus, the bishop; Damasus, the bishop; Apollinarius, the bishop; Gregory, the bishop; Pacianus, the bishop; Photinus, the heresiarch; Phoebadius, the bishop; Didymus the blind; Optatus, the bishop; Acilius Severus, the senator; Cyril, the bishop; Euzoius, the bishop; Epiphanius, the bishop; Ephrem, the deacon; Basil, another bishop; Gregory, another bishop; Lucius, the bishop; Diodorus, the bishop; Eunomius, the heresiarch; Priscillianus, the bishop; Latronianus; Tiberianus; Ambrose, the bishop; Evagrius, the bishop; Ambrose, the disciple of Didymus; Maximus, ex-philosopher, then bishop; Gregory, another bishop; John, the presbyter; Gelasius, the bishop; Theotimus, the bishop; Dexter, son of Pacianus, now praetorian prefect; Amphilochius, the bishop; Sophronius; Jerome, the presbyter.

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