The book of Exodus.
The second book of the Pentateuch.
None on site.
CCEL: Exodus (Hebrew only).
Swete LXX (Greek only).
Gateway (English only).
HTML Bible: Exodus (Hebrew and English).
HTML Bible: Exodus
(Latin Vulgate only).
Zhubert (Greek and English).
Kata Pi BHS: Exodus (Hebrew and English).
Kata Pi LXX: Exodus (Greek and English).
Kata Pi LXX: Ode (song of Moses).
Sacred Texts: Exodus (polyglot).
Sacred Texts: Ode (song of Moses).
Exodus at the OT Gateway.
Exodus in the Jewish Encyclopedia.
EJW (Peter Kirby).
Pentateuch at Kata Pi (Oesterly
Exodus from the Plymouth Brethren.
Introduction to Exodus (David Malick).
Outline of Exodus (David Malick).
The Structured Torah (Moshe Kline).
The Exodus and The Wanderings in the Wilderness (Alfred Edersheim).
Theophany at the Burning Bush (Nahum Sarna).
When Baby Moses Reached for Pharaoh's Crown (Louis Ginzberg).
Exod 23.20-33 and the War of YHWH (Hans Ausloos).
The Date of the Exodus (Dennis Bratcher).
Dating the Exodus (Walter Reinhold Warttig Mattfeld y de la Torre).
Dancing and Shining at Sinai (David J. A. Clines).
Jewish tradition attributes the Pentateuch (that is, the books of Genesis,
Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy) to Moses.
Our English title is of Greek derivation (εξοδος) and means the
way or journey out, indicating the escape from
The book was originally written in Hebrew, but the ancient Greek
translation known as the Septuagint
(abbreviated LXX) is also a very important witness to the text.
Peter Kirby (Early Jewish Writings).
Peter Kirby surveys scholars writing on the book of Exodus:
Hill and Walton write: "The message of Exodus is summarized in two passages:
the commission of Moses (6:2-9) and the preface to the covenant ceremony at
Sinai (19:1-6). The three basic components of the message include (1) the judgment
of the oppressor nation Egypt, (2) the deliverance of Israel from slavery in
Egypt by the 'mighty arm' of Yahweh, and (3) the establishment of Israel as
God's special possession among all peoples."
Walter Harrelson writes: "The three major literary strands continue throughout
the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. In Exodus, J and E
are prominent in chaps. 1-24 and 32-34. The materials in chaps. 25-31 and 35-40
are normally assigned to P. The priestly tradition also seems to have shaped
the entire Book of Leviticus. In Numbers, the J and E materials are most apparent
in chaps. 11-14 and 21-24, the majority of the remainder being from the priestly
tradition. The Book of Deuteronomy contains much ancient legislation which has
undergone a number of modifications. The J and E materials, if present at all,
appear in the closing chapters, 27-34. The letter D designates the remainder."
(Interpreting the Old Testament, p. 75)
P. Kyle McCarter Jr. writes: "The basic thread to which the rest has been
attached is the J account. The original form of this old story remains generally
visible despite its reworking by subsequent editors. It presents the departure
from Egypt as a continuation of the theme of the double promise made by Yahweh
to the patriarchs. Israel is to become a great nation living in a productive
land. The first part of this promise, the growth into a great nation, seems
already very near fulfillment at the beginning of the Exodus story. The Israelites
have become a strong and numerous people, a sign of the power of the blessing
that accompanied the promise (Gen. 12:2-3). But the captivity in Egypt is a
hindrance to th realization of the second part of the promise, the occupation
of the land, and the king of Egypt, in his determination to reduce the numbers
of the Israelites, poses a direct threat to the first part. Thus in the J narrative
it is to safeguard his promise to the patriarchs that Yahweh commissions Moses
to lead the people to freedom. Knowing that this can be achieved only by force
(3:19-20), Yahweh strikes Egypt with repeated plagues until Pharaoh agrees to
let the people go. In the end, the king who tried to thwart the blessing of
Israel asks Israel for a blessing for himself (12:32). Note that for J the goal
of the Exodus is clearly the promised land (3:8, 17). Sinai is only a stopalbeit
the most important stopalong the way. J's version of the proclamation
of the covenant, which is preserved in chap. 34, links the covenant very closely
to the conquest of the land (cf. 34:11). The covenant stipulations are largely
concerned with agricultural festivals; thus the mandated mode of worship is
also linked to the land (34:18-26)." (Harper's Bible Commentary,
John E. Huesman writes: "The final redaction, or the form of the book
as we have it today, probably dates from the 5th cent. BC." (The Jerome
Biblical Comentary, p. 47) Huesman provides the following outline:
Exodus can be divided into six sections. The first section (1:1-12:36) tells
the story of Israel in Egypt: the oppression of the Israelites; the birth
and adoption of Moses; his flight to, and sojourn in, Midian; and his call
by Yahweh. After his choice, Moses returns to confront Pharaoh with the divine
command, 'Let my people go.' The obduracy of Pharaoh and the crescendo of
plagues occupy most of the remaining material of this section. With the death
of the first-born of the Egyptians, the Israelites win their freedom and prepare
to depart from the land of slavery.
The second section (12:37-18:27) treats the Exodus and the wandering. Avoiding
the Way of the Land of the Philistines, Moses leads his people across the
Sea of Reeds onto the rugged terrain of the Sinai Peninsula. Throughout the
narrative, special emphasis is laid on the divine assistance accorded the
Israelites. The victory paean of ch. 15 constitutes a glorious and joyful
hymn of praise and simulataneously provides us with one of our oldest pieces
of Hebrew poetry. To the subsequent complaints of the people, Yahweh responds
with manna, quail, and water from the rock. Through Moses' intercession, he
also grants them victory over the Amalekites, and the section closes with
the institution of judges.
The third and most important section (19:1-24:18) deals with the covenant.
Yahweh summons his chosen leader to Sinai's mount and through him proposes
a unique union with Israelthe Israelites will be his people and he will
be their God. The Decalogue and Book of the Covenant announce the stipulations
incumbent upon Israel as a result of this union.
The fourth section (25:1-31:18) enumerates the detailed instructions for
the Tabernacle: e.g., the size, construction materials, and adornments. Also
in this section occurs the divine institution of the priesthood, with specific
instructions regarding consecration and priestly vestments. Further injunctions
The brief fifth section (32:1-34:35) tells of the sorry apostasy of the chosen
people and their worship of the golden calf. The further mediation of Moses
averts the destruction of his people and wins a renewal of the covenant with
Yahweh. The sixth and final section (35:1-40:38) describes the fulfillment
of the commands in chs. 25-31.
Samuel Sandmel writes: "Of the many intriguing aspects of the foregoing
story, we shall be forced to limit ourselves to remarking on only a limited
number. In the first place, we deal with an account full of miracles, and not
with a political account. Curiously, the name of neither the hostile Pharaoh
nor of his daughter who rescued Moses is given; yet we are told the names of
the two Egyptian midwives, Shifrah and Puah. (Did just two midwives suffice
for an Israelite population that included 600,000 men [12:37]?) Though Moses
has been reared in Pharaoh's palace and remained there until manhood, no allusion
is made to this period, in the subsequent dealing with Pharaoh, nor is it at
all implied that Moses and Pharaoh know each other. Moreover, the motives of
the Egyptians seem mixed. On the one hand, the midwives were to slay the male
children. If the motive was to be freed of the Hebrews by preventing them from
propagating, why retain them in slaverywhy not simply kill them or send
them away? On the other hand, if they made good slaves, why seek to keep them
from propagating and increasing?" (The Hebrew Scriptures, pp. 373-374)
Jay G. Williams writes: "One should not conclude from this tentative hypothesis
[of a thirteenth century Exodus], however, that the exodus took place as the
Bible says. We have no external evidence at all about the exodus and must rely
almost exclusively on the Bible for our information. Although the basic outlines
of the Biblical story seem believable, it is difficult to separate historical
fact and legendary embellishment. In particular, the question of whether all
the tribes participated in the event is a much debated point. It may be that
the story of the exodus functioned in Israel much as the story of the first
Thanksgiving functions in modern America. Although Americans tend to speak of
the Puritans as forefathers, it is obvious that they are such only in a quasi-mythological
way, for the ancestors of most Americans came to the New World long after the
Puritans arrived. In the same way, Israelites may have taken this event experienced
by a few of the tribes and made it a central myth for all." (Understanding
the Old Testament, p. 101)