By their fruits.

Matthew 7.15-20; 12.33-35 = Luke 6.43-45.

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Notes and quotes.

§ Thomas 45:

ΠΕϪΕ Ι̅C̅ ΜΑΥϪΕΛΕΕΛΟΟΛΕ ΕΒΟΛ ϨΝ̅ϢΟΝΤΕ ΟΥΤΕ ΜΑΥΚΩΤϤ ΚΝ̅ΤΕ ΕΒΟΛ ϨΝ̅CΡ̅ϬΑΜΟΥΛ ΜΑΥϮΚΑΡΠΟC [...]ΘΟC Ρ̅ΡΩΜΕ ϢΑϤΕΙΝΕ Ν̅ΟΥΑΓΑΘΟΝ ΕΒΟΛ ϨΜ̅ΠΕϤΕϨΟ ΟΥΚΑ[ΚΟC] Ρ̅ΡΩΜΕ ϢΑϤΕΙΝΕ Ν̅ϨΝ̅ΠΟΝΗΡΟΝ ΕΒΟΛ ϨΜ̅ΠΕϤΕϨΟ ΕΘΟΟΥ ΕΤϨΝ̅ΠΕϤϨΗΤ ΑΥΩ Ν̅ϤϪΩ Ν̅ϨΝ̅ΠΟΝΗΡΟΝ ΕΒΟΛ ΓΑΡ ϨΜ̅ΦΟΥΟ Μ̅ΦΗΤ ϢΑϤΕΙΝΕ ΕΒΟΛ Ν̅ϨΝ̅ΠΟΝΗΡΟΝ.

Jesus said: Grapes are not harvested from thorns, nor are figs gathered from thistles, for they do not produce fruit. A good man brings forth good from his treasury; an evil man brings forth evil things from his evil treasury, which is in his heart, and he says evil things. For out of the abundance of the heart he brings forth evil things.

§ Ignatius to the Philadelphians 2.1-2:

Τεκνα ουν φωτος αληθειας, φευγετε τον μερισμον και τας κακοδιδασκαλιας· οπου δε ο ποιμην εστιν, εκει ως προβατα ακολουθειτε. πολλοι γαρ λυκοι αξιοπιστοι ηδονη κακη αιχμαλωτιζουσιν τους θεοδρομους· αλλ εν τη ενοτητι υμων ουχ εξουσιν τοπον.

Therefore, as children of light and truth, flee from division and evil doctrines; but where the shepherd is, there you follow as sheep. For many wolves that appear worthy of faith with evil pleasure lead captive those who are running toward God; but in your unity they shall have no place.

§ Didache 16.3:

Εν γαρ ταις εσχαταις ημεραις πληθυνθησονται οι ψευδοπροφηται και οι φθορεις, και στραφησονται τα προβατα εις λυκους, και η αγαπη στραφησεται εις μισος.

For in the last days the false prophets and corrupters will be multiplied, and the sheep will be changed into wolves, and love will be changed into hatred.

§ The Shepherd of Hermas, Parable 4.[1.]4:

Τα δε εθνη και οι αμαρτωλοι, α ειδες τα δενδρα τα ξηρα, τοιουτοι ευρεθησονται ξηροι και ακαρποι εν εκεινω τω αιωνι και ως ξυλα κατακαυθησονται και φανεροι εσονται, οτι η πραξις αυτων πονηρα γεγονεν εν τη ζωη αυτων. οι μεν γαρ αμαρτωλοι καυθησονται οτι ηματρον και ου μετενοησαν, τα δε εθνη καυθησονται οτι ουκ εγνωσαν τον κτισαντα αυτους.

But the gentiles and the sinners, which you saw as the withered trees, such as these will be found withered and unfruitful in that age, and they will be burnt up as dry things, and will be made apparent, because their practice in their life has been evil. For the sinners will be burned because they sinned and did not repent; and the gentiles will be burned because they did not know the one who created them.

Mandate 6.2.4:

Ορα ουν και του αγγελου της πονηριας τα εργα. πρωτον παντων οξυχολος εστι και πικρος και αφρων, και τα εργα αυτου πονηρα, καταστρεφοντα τους δουλους του θεου· οταν ουν ουτος επι την καρδιαν σου αναβη, γνωθι αυτον απο των εργων αυτου.

See, therefore, also the works of the angel of evil also. First of all, he is quick-tempered and bitter and mindless, and his works are evil, overthrowing the servants of God. When, therefore, this one ascends upon your heart, know him from his works.

§ Justin Martyr, Apology 1.16.8-14:

Οι δ αν μη ευρισκωνται βιουντες ως εδιδαξε, γνωριζεσθωσαν μη οντες Χριστιανοι, καν λεγωσιν δια γλωττης τα του Χριστου διδαγματα· ου γαρ τους μονον λεγοντας, αλλα τους και τα εργα πραττοντας σωθησεσθαι εφη. ειπε γαρ ουτως· Ουχι πας ο λεγων μοι· Κυριε, κυριε, εισελευσεται εις την βασιλειαν των ουρανων, αλλ ο ποιων το θελημα του πατρος μου του εν τοις ουρανοις. ος γαρ ακουει μου και ποιει α λεγω ακουει του αποστειλαντος με. πολλοι δε ερουσι μοι· Κυριε, κυριε, ου τω σω ονοματι εφαγομεν και επιομεν και δυναμεις εποιησαμεν; και τοτε ερω αυτοις· Αποχωρειτε απ εμου, εργαται της ανομιας. τοτε κλαυθμος εσται και βρυγμος των οδοντων, οταν οι μεν δικαιοι λαμψωσιν ως ο ηλιος, οι δε αδικοι πεμπωνται εις το αιωνιον πυρ. πολλοι γαρ ηξουσιν επι τω ονοματι μου, εξωθεν μεν ενδεδυμενοι δερματα προβατων, εσωθεν δε οντες λυκοι αρπαγες· εκ των εργων αυτων επιγνωσεσθε αυτους. παν δε δενδρον μη ποιουν καρπον καλον εκκοπτεται και εις πυρ βαλλεται. κολαζεσθαι δε τους ουκ ακολουθως τοις διδαγμασιν αυτου βιουντας, λεγομενους δε μονον Χριστιανους, και υφ υμων αξιουμεν.

And let those who are not found living as he taught be understood not to be Christians, even though they profess with the lip the teachings of Christ; for not those who only say them, but rather those who practice the works shall be saved. For he said thus: Not every one who says to me: Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of the heavens, but rather the one that does the will of my father who is in the heavens. For he who hears me and does my sayings hears him who sent me. And many will say unto me: Lord, Lord, have we not eaten and drunk in your name, and done powerful things? And then will I say unto them: Depart from me, workers of lawlessness. Then shall there be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when the just shall shine as the sun, but the unjust are sent into the eternal fire. For many shall come in my name, clothed outwardly in the skin of sheep, but inwardly being ravenous wolves. From their works you will know them. And every tree that does not make good fruit is cut down and cast into the fire. And as to those who are not living pursuant to these teachings of his, and are only called Christians, we demand that all such be punished by you.

Dialogue 35.3:

Ειπε γαρ· Πολλοι ελευσονται επι τω ονοματι μου, εξωθεν ενδεδυμενοι δερματα προβατων, εσωθεν δε εισι λυκοι αρπαγες, και· Εχονται σχισματα και αιρεσεις, και· Προσεχετε απο των ψευδοπροφητων, οιτινες ελευσονται προς υμας εξωθεν ενδεδυμενοι δερματα προβατων, εσωθεν δι εισι λυκοι αρπαγες, και· Αναστησονται πολλοι ψευδοχριστοι και ψευδοαποστολοι, και πολλους των πιστων πλανησουσιν.

For he said: Many will come in my name, clothed outwardly in skins of sheep, but inwardly they are ravenous wolves, and: There shall be schisms and heresies, and: Beware of false prophets, who will come to you clothed outwardly in skins of sheep, but inwardly they are ravenous wolves, and: Many false Christs and false apostles will stand up, and they will deceive many of the faithful.

§ Papyrus Merton 51, verso (lines 10-17 of the entire fragment):

  1. [... πονη]ρου προφερ[ων ...]
  2. [ε]φερεν ως εκ π[ονηρου ...]
  3. ρον και οτε αποσ[τελλ...-]
  4. θου θησαυρου τη[ς ...]
  5. απολλυτ[αι ...]
  6. [αυ]της ουκ αρ[α ...]
  7. [...] ου ποιειτε [...]
  8. [...]ου λεγ[οντος ....]
  1. [... of e]vil bearing for[th ...]
  2. [b]ore forth as from e[vil ...]
  3. ...and when ... se[nd... -]
  4. ... of the treasure of th[e ...]
  5. destroy[s ...]
  6. [of] it not [...]
  7. [...] you do not do [...]
  8. [...] say[ing ....]