The gospel of Luke.
Our third canonical gospel.
Luke the physician.
(on site, Greek only).
Greek Bible (Greek only).
Gateway (English only).
HTML Bible: Luke (Greek and English).
HTML Bible: Luke
(Latin Vulgate only).
Zhubert (Greek and English).
Kata Pi: Luke (Greek and English).
Kata Pi LXX: Odes (magnificat),
Sacred Texts: Luke (polyglot).
Sacred Texts: Odes (magnificat
and benedictus), (nunc
Listed inventory of
the gospel of Luke (on site).
Synoptic project (on site).
Luke at the NT Gateway.
Luke at Early Christian Writings.
Luke by Daniel Wallace.
Luke in the Catholic Encyclopedia.
Luke at Kata Pi (R. M. Grant).
ECW e-Catena: Luke .
Mark Goodacre, NT Gateway Blog:
Lucan parallels to the
As your father
Measure for measure
(Luke 6.31, 36-38).
The five apocalyptic moments
in the synoptic gospels.
Patristic tradition attributes
our third canonical gospel to Luke,
a physician and associate of the apostle Paul (Colossians 4.14; 2
Timothy 4.11; Philemon 24). Also attributed to Luke is the
of the Apostles, which claims by its preface (Acts 1.1-2) to have
been written by the same individual as the gospel of Luke (see Luke
1.1-4) and by its use of the first person (Acts 16.9-18; 20.4-16;
21.1-18; 27.1-28.16) to have been written by a sometime travelling
companion of Paul.
Early century I.
An Armenian translation of the commentary on Revelation by
Andrew of Caesarea contains the following concerning
And Papias spoke in the following manner in his treatises:
...the victory of Michael and his legions, the guardians of mankind,
became complete, and the dragon could resist no more because the death of Christ
exposed him to ridicule and threw him to earth, concerning which Christ said: I was
seeing Satan fallen from heaven like a lightning bolt.
To all appearances, according to this quotation, Papias is
alluding to Luke 10.18.
It has also been noticed that what Papias has to say about the
gospel of Mark resembles the
preface of Luke in some
Early or middle of century II.
Tertullian, Against Marcion
4.4.3-5a (English translation slightly modified from that of
Quod ergo pertinet ad evangelium
interim Lucae, quatenus communio eius inter nos et
Marcionem de veritate disceptat, adeo antiquius Marcione est
quod est secundum nos, ut et ipse illi Marcion aliquando
crediderit, cum et pecuniam in primo calore fidei catholicae
ecclesiae contulit, proiectam mox cum ipso, posteaquam in haeresim
suam a nostra veritate descivit. quid nunc, si negaverint
Marcionitae primam apud nos fidem eius, adversus epistulam quoque
ipsius? quid si nec epistulam agnoverint?
So then meanwhile, as concerns the gospel of
Luke, seeing that the use of it shared between us and Marcion
becomes an arbiter of the truth, our version of it is to such an
extent older than Marcion that Marcion himself once believed it.
That was when in the first warmth of faith he presented the catholic
church with that money which was before long cast out along with him
after he had diverged from our truth into his own heresy. What
now, if the Marcionites are going to deny that his faith at first
was with us, even against the evidence of his own epistle? What
if they refuse to acknowledge that epistle?
non modo fatentur Marcionis, sed et praeferunt. ex his mihi probatio
sufficit. si enim id evangelium quod Lucae refertur penes nos,
viderimus an et penes Marcionem, ipsum est quod Marcion per
Antitheses suas arguit
ut interpolatum a protectoribus Iudaismi ad concorporationem
legis et prophetarum, qua etiam Christum inde confingerent,
utique non potuisset arguere nisi quod invenerat.
Certainly the Antitheses of Marcion not only admit this,
but even make a show of it. Proof taken from them is good enough
for me. If that gospel which among us is ascribed to Luke, and we
shall see whether it is [accepted by] Marcion, if that is the same
that Marcion by his Antitheses
accuses of having been falsified by the upholders of Judaism
with a view to its being so combined in one body with the law
and the prophets that they might also pretend that Christ
had that origin, evidently he could only have brought accusation
against something he had found there already.
Nemo post futura reprehendit quae ignorat futura.
Emendatio culpam non antecedit.
No one passes censure on things
afterwards to be, when he does not know they are afterwards to be.
Correction does not come before fault.
Late century II?
These Latin prologues, also called the Old Latin
prologues, precede each of the gospels in some
copies of the Latin Bible. Scholars disagree as to their exact
date, but many place them in the late second century. A Matthean prologue is not extant.
Late century II.
Irenaeus of Lyons refers explicitly to
all four canonical gospels.
Quoniam autem Paulus simpliciter quae sciebat haec et docuit,
non solum eos qui cum eo erant verum omnes audientes se ipse facit manifestum.
in Mileto enim convocatis episcopis et presbyteris qui erant ab Epheso et
a reliquis proximis civitatibus quoniam ipse festinaret Hierosolymis
Pentecosten agere, multa testificans
eis et dicens quae oportet ei Hierosolymis evenire adiecit: Scio quoniam
iam non videbitis faciem meam. testificor igitur vobis hac die quoniam
mundus sum a sanguine omnium. non enim subtraxi uti non adnuntiarem
vobis omnem sententiam dei. adtendite igitur et vobis et omni gregi
in quo vos spiritus sanctus praeposuit episcopos regere ecclesiam
domini quam sibi constituit per sanguinem suum. dein significans futuros
malos doctores dixit: Ego scio quoniam advenient post discessum meum
lupi graves ad vos, non parcentes gregi. et ex vobis ipsis exsurgent
viri loquentes perversa uti convertant discipulos post se. Non subtraxi,
inquit, uti non adnuntiarem omnem sententiam dei vobis, sic apostoli
simpliciter et nemini invidentes quae didicerant ipsi a domino haec
omnibus tradebant, sic igitur et Lucas nemini invidens ea quae ab eis
didicerat tradidit nobis, sicut ipse testificatur, dicens: Quemadmodum
tradiderunt nobis qui ab initio contemplatores et ministri fuerunt
But that Paul taught with simplicity what he knew, not only to
those who were with him but also to those who heard him, he does himself make manifest.
For, when the bishops and presbyters who came from Ephesus and the other cities
adjoining had assembled in Miletus, since he was himself hastening to Jerusalem to
observe Pentecost, after testifying many things
to them and declaring what must happen to him at Jerusalem he added: I know that you
shall see my face no more. Therefore I take you to record this day, that I am pure
from the blood of all. For I have not shunned to declare unto you all the counsel of
God. Take heed, therefore, both to yourselves and to all the flock over which the holy
spirit has placed you as bishops, to rule the church of the Lord which he has acquired
for himself through His own blood. Then, referring to the evil teachers who should arise,
he said: I know that after my departure shall grievous wolves come to you, not sparing
the flock. Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw
away disciples after them. I have not shunned, he says, to declare unto you all the
counsel of God.1 Thus did the apostles simply, and without respect of persons,
deliver to all what they had themselves learned from the Lord. Thus also does Luke,
without respect of persons, deliver to us what he had learned from them, as he has
himself testified, saying: Even as they delivered them unto us, who from the beginning
were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word.2
1 Refer to Acts 20.15-38.
2 Refer to Luke 1.2.
Si autem quis refutet Lucam quasi non cognoverit
veritatem, manifestus erit proiciens evangelium cuius dignatur esse
discipulus. plurima enim et magis necessaria evangelii per hunc
cognovimus, sicut: Iohannis generationem et de Zacharia historiam,
et adventum angeli ad Mariam, et exclamationem Elizabeth, et
angelorum ad pastores descensum et ea quae ab illis dicta sunt,
et Annae et Simeonis de Christo testimonium, et quod XII annorum
in Hierusalem relicius sit, et baptismum Iohannis et quot annorum
dominus baptizatus sit et quia in XV anno Tiberii Caesaris, et in
magisterio illud quod ad divites dictum est: Vae vobis, divites,
quoniam percipitis consolationem vestram; vae vobis qui satiati estis,
quoniam esurietis; et qui ridetis nunc, quoniam plorabitis;
et: Vae vobis cum benedixerint vos omnes homines. secundum haec
enim faciebant ei pseudoprophetis patres vestri. et omnia huiusmodi
per solum Lucam cognovimus, et plurimos actus domini per hunc
didicimus quibus ei omnes utuntur, ut multitudinem piscium quam
concluserunt hi qui cum Petro erant, iubente domino ut mitterent
retia, et illa quae per decem et octo annos passa curata hac die,
et quemadmodum docuit discipulos primos discubitus non adpetere,
et quoniam pauperes et debiles vocare oportet qui non habent
retribuere, et qui pulsat noctu sumere panes et propter instantiam
inportunitatis sumit, et quoniam apud Pharisaeum recumbente eo,
peccatrix mulier osculabatur pedes eius et unguebat unguento, et
quaecumque propter eam dixit ad Symonem dominus de duobus
debitoribus, et de parabola divitis illius qui reclusit quae
ei nata fuerant, cui et dictum est: In hac nocte expostulabunt
animam tuam a te; quae autem praeparasti, cuius erunt? similiter
autem et divitis qui vestitur purpuram et locumdatur nitide et
egenum Elazarum, et eam quam ad discentes suos dixit responsionem
quando dixerunt ei: Adice nobis fidem, et eam quae ad Zachaeum
publicanum facta est confabulationem, et de Pharisaeo et de publicano
qui simul adorabant in templo, et de decem leprosis quos simul
emundavit in via, et quoniam de vicis et plateis claudos et luscos
lussit colligi ad nuptias, et parabolam iudicis qui deum non timebat,
quem instantia viduae fecit ut vindicaret eam, et de arbore fici
quae erat in vinea, quae non faciebat fructum. et alia multa sunt
quae inveniri possunt a solo Luca dicta esse, quibus et Marcion
et Valentinus utuntur. et super haec omnia, post resurrectionem in
via ad discipulos suos quae locutus est et quemadmodum cognoverunt
eum in fractione panis.
Now, if any man sets Luke aside as one who did not know the truth,
he will manifestly reject that gospel of which he claims to be a disciple. For through
him we have become acquainted with very many and important parts of the gospel, for instance,
the generation of John,1 the history of Zacharias,2 the coming of the
angel to Mary,3 the exclamation of Elizabeth,4 the descent of the angels
to the shepherds,5 the words spoken by them,6 the testimony of Anna and
of Simeon with regard to Christ,7 and that at twelve years of age he was left
behind at Jerusalem,8 also the baptism of John,9 the number of years
of the Lord when he was baptized,10 and that this occurred in the fifteenth year
of Tiberius Caesar.11 And in his office of teacher this is what he has said to
the rich: Woe unto you that are rich, for you have received your consolation, and woe unto
you who are full, for you shall hunger, and you who laugh now, for you shall weep, and woe
unto you when all men shall speak well of you, for so did your fathers to the false
prophets.12 All things of the following kind we have known through Luke alone,
and numerous actions of the Lord we have learned through him, which also all notice, [namely]
the multitude of fishes which the companions of Peter enclosed, when at the command of the
Lord they cast the nets,13 the woman who had suffered for eighteen years and was
healed on the sabbath day,14 the man who had the dropsy, whom the Lord made whole
on the sabbath, and how he did defend himself for having performed an act of healing on that
day,15 how he taught his disciples not to aspire to the uppermost rooms,16
how we should invite the poor and feeble, who cannot recompense us;17 the man
who knocked during the night to obtain loaves, and did obtain them, because of the urgency
of his importunity;18 how when hewas sitting at meat with a Pharisee a woman
that was a sinner kissed his feet and anointed them with ointment,19 with what
the Lord said to Simon on her behalf concerning the two debtors,20 also about the
parable of that rich man who stored up the goods which had accrued to him, to whom it was
also said: In this night they shall demand your soul from you; whose then shall those things
be which you have prepared?,21 and, similar to this, that of the rich man who was
clothed in purple and who fared sumptuously, and the indigent Lazarus,22 also
the answer which he gave to his disciples when they said: Increase our faith,23
also his conversation with Zaccheus the publican,24 also about the Pharisee and
the publican who were praying in the temple at the same time,25 also the ten lepers
whom he cleansed simultaneously on the way,26 also how he ordered the lame and the
blind to be gathered to the wedding from the lanes and streets;27 also the parable
of the judge who feared not God, whom the importunity of the widow led to avenge her
cause,28 and about the fig tree in the vineyard which produced no
fruit.29 There are also many other particulars to be found mentioned by
Luke alone, which are made use of both by Marcion and by Valentinus. And, besides
all these, [he records] what he said to his disciples in the way, after the resurrection,
and how they recognized him in the breaking of bread.30
1 Refer to Luke 1.57 and context.
2 Refer to Luke 1.5-23.
3 Refer to Luke 1.26-38.
4 Refer to Luke 1.42-45.
5 Refer to Luke 1.8-14.
6 Refer to Luke 1.15.
7 Refer to Luke 2.25-38.
8 Refer to Luke 2.41-51.
9 Refer to Luke 3.10-14.
10 Refer to Luke 3.23.
11 Refer to Luke 3.1.
12 Refer to Luke 6.24-26.
13 Refer to Luke 5.1-11.
14 Refer to Luke 13.11-17.
15 Refer to Luke 14.1-6.
16 Refer to Luke 14.7-11.
17 Refer to Luke 14.12-14.
18 Refer to Luke 11.5-8.
19 Refer to Luke 7.36-38.
20 Refer to Luke 7.40-43.
21 Refer to Luke 12.16-21.
22 Refer to Luke 16.19-31.
23 Refer to Luke 17.5-6.
24 Refer to Luke 19.2-10.
25 Refer to Luke 18.10-14.
26 Refer to Luke 17.12-19.
27 Refer to Luke 14.16-24.
28 Refer to Luke 18.1-8.
29 Refer to Luke 13.6-9.
30 Refer to Luke 24.13-32.
Necesse est igitur et reliqua quae ab eo dicta
sunt recipere eos aut et his renuntiare. non enim conceditur eis
ab his qui sensum habent quaedam quidem recipere ex his quae
a Luca dicta sunt quasi sint veritatis, quaedam vero refutare
quasi non cognovisset veritatem. et si quidem refutaverint hi
qui a Marcione sunt, non habebunt evangelium; hoc enim quod est
secundum Lucam quemadmodum praediximus decurtantes, gloriantur
habere se evangelium. hi vero qui a Valentino sunt cessabunt
a plurimo vaniloquio suo, ex hoc enim multas occasiones
subtililoquii sui acceperunt, interpretari audentes male
quae ab hoc bene sunt dicta. si autem et reliqua suscipere
cogentur, intendentes perfecto evangelio et apostolorum
doctrinae, oportet eos paenitentiam agere ut salvari a periculo
It follows then, as of course, that these men must either receive
the rest of his narrative or else reject these parts also. For no persons of common sense
can permit them to receive some things recounted by Luke as being true and to set others
aside, as if he had not known the truth. And, if indeed the followers of Marcion reject
these, they will then possess no gospel; for, curtailing that according to Luke, as I
have said already, they boast in having the gospel [in what remains]. But the followers
of Valentinus must give up their utterly vain talk; for they have taken from it many
occasions for their own speculations, to put an evil interpretation upon what he has
well said. If, on the other hand, they feel compelled to receive the remaining portions
also, then by studying the perfect gospel and the doctrine of the apostles they will find
it necessary to repent, that they may be saved from the danger.
The Muratorian canon.
Late century II.
This canonical list
witnesses to the gospel of Luke directly.
Theophilus of Antioch.
Late century II.
Jerome writes in epistle 121 that Theophilus compiled the sayings
of the four evangelists into one work,
and he refers in general to inspired gospels (in the plural).
Theophilus also quotes from or
Matthew 5.32 = Luke 16.18
in To Autolycus 3.13:
And the evangelical voice teaches more urgently
concerning chastity, saying: Every one who looks upon another woman to
desire her has already committed adultery with her in his heart.1
And the one who marries, it says, a woman divorced from the man commits
adultery, and whoever divorces his wife except by reason of fornication
makes her commit adultery.2
1 Refer to Matthew 5.28.
2 Refer to Matthew 5.32 = Luke 16.18.
In To Autolycus 3.14
he quotes from or alludes to
Matthew 5.44, 46 = Luke 6.28, 32:
And the gospel says: Love your enemies, and pray
on behalf of those who revile you. For, if you love those who love you,
what kind of reward do you have? Even the thieves and tax-collectors do
this.1 And it teaches those who do good not to boast, lest they become
pleasers of men. For it says: Do not let your left hand know what your
right hand is doing.2 Moreover, also concerning subjection
to rulers and authorities, and prayer on their behalf, the divine word
gives us orders, in order that we may lead a tranquil and quiet
life.3 And it teaches to render all things to all,
honor to whom honor, fear to whom fear, tax to whom tax, [and] to owe
nothing to anyone except only to love all.4
1 Refer to Matthew 5.44, 46 = Luke 6.28, 32.
2 Refer to Matthew 6.3.
3 Refer to 1 Timothy 2.2.
4 Refer to Romans 13.7-8.
Clement of Alexandria.
Late century II.
From Eusebius, History of the Church 6.14.5-7:
And again in the same books Clement sets the tradition
of the earliest elders concerning the order of the gospels, in this way: He
says that those of the gospels having the genealogies were published openly,*
but that the gospel according to Mark had this economy: While Peter was
preaching the word publicly in Rome and speaking out the gospel by the
spirit, those who were present, who were many, called upon Mark, as
having followed him from far back and remembering what was said, to write up
the things that were said, and having made the gospel he gave it out to those
who had requested it. When Peter came to know, he neither directly prevented
nor encouraged it. But John, last of all, knowing that the bodily facts had
been made clear in the gospels, urged by friends, borne by the spirit of God,
made a spiritual gospel. So much for Clement.
Early century III.
Tertullian affirms the four gospels
Tertullian, Against Marcion
4.2.1b-5 (text and translation modified from that of Ernest Evans):
Transeo nunc ad evangelii,
sane non Iudaici sed Pontici, interim
adulterati demonstrationem, praestructuram ordinem quem
aggredimur. constituimus inprimis evangelicum instrumentum
apostolos auctores habere, quibus hoc munus evangelii promulgandi
ab ipso domino sit impositum. si et apostolicos, non tamen
solos, sed cum apostolis et post apostolos, quoniam praedicatio
discipulorum suspecta fieri posset de gloriae studio, si non adsistat
illi auctoritas magistrorum, immo Christi, quae magistros
I pass on next to show how his gospel,
certainly not Judaic but Pontic, is in places adulterated, and this
shall form the basis of
my order of approach. I lay it down to begin with that the documents
of the gospel have the apostles for their authors, and that
this task of promulgating the gospel was imposed upon them by
our Lord himself. If they also have for their authors apostolic
men, yet these stand not alone, but as companions of apostles or
followers of apostles, because the preaching of disciples might be
made suspect of the desire of vainglory, unless there stood by it
the authority of their teachers, or rather the authority of Christ,
which made the apostles teachers.
Denique nobis fidem ex apostolis Ioannes et Matthaeus
insinuant, ex apostolicis Lucas et Marcus instaurant, isdem regulis
exorsi, quantum ad unicum deum attinet creatorem et Christum
eius, natum ex virgine, supplementum legis et prophetarum.
viderit enim si narrationum dispositio variavit, dummodo de
capite fidei conveniat, de quo cum Marcione non convenit.
In short, from among the
apostles the faith is introduced to us by John and by Matthew,
while from among apostolic men Luke and Mark give it renewal,
beginning with the same rules as far as
relates to the one only God, the creator, and to his Christ, born
of a virgin, the fulfilment of the law and the prophets. It matters
not that the arrangement of their narratives varies, so long as
there is agreement on the essentials of the faith, and on these
they show no agreement with Marcion.
Contra Marcion evangelio, scilicet suo, nullum
adscribit auctorem, quasi non licuerit illi titulum quoque affingere, cui nefas
non fuit ipsum corpus evertere. et possem hic iam gradum figere,
non agnoscendum contendens opus quod non erigat frontem,
quod nullam constantiam praeferat, nullam fidem repromittat
de plenitudine tituli et professione debita auctoris.
Marcion, on the other hand,
attaches to his gospel the name of no author, as though he to
whom it was no crime to overturn the whole body might not
assume permission to invent a title for it as well. At this point I
might have made a stand, arguing that no recognition is due to
a work which cannot lift up its head, which makes no show of
courage, which gives no promise of credibility by having a fully
descriptive title and the requisite indication of the name of
Sed per omnia
congredi malumus, nec dissimulamus quod ex nostro intellegi
potest. nam ex iis commentatoribus quos habemus Lucam videtur
Marcion elegisse quem caederet. porro Lucas non apostolus sed
apostolicus, non magister sed discipulus, utique magistro minor,
certe tanto posterior quanto posterioris apostoli sectator, Pauli
sine dubio, ut et si sub ipsius Pauli nomine evangelium Marcion
intulisset, non sufficeret ad fidem singularitas instrumenti desti-
tuta patrocinio antecessorum.
But I prefer to join issue on all points,
nor am I leaving unmentioned anything that can be taken as
being in my favor. For out
of those authors whom we possess Marcion is seen to have chosen
Luke as the one to mutilate. Now Luke was not an apostle
but an apostolic man, not a master but a disciple, in any case less
than his master, and assuredly even more of lesser account as
being the follower of a later apostle, Paul, to be sure, so that, even
if Marcion had introduced his gospel under the name of Paul in
person, that one single document would not be adequate for our
faith if destitute of the support of his predecessors.
Exigeretur enim id quoque evangelium
quod Paulus invenit, cui fidem dedidit, cui mox suum
congruere gestiit, siquidem propterea Hierosolymam ascendit ad
cognoscendos apostolos et consultandos, ne forte in vacuum
cucurrisset, id est ne non secundum illos credidisset et non
secundum illos evangelizaret. denique ut cum auctoribus contulit,
et convenit de regula fidei, dextras miscuere, et exinde
officia praedicandi distinxerunt, ut illi in Iudaeos, Paulus in
Iudaeos et in nationes. igitur si ipse illuminator Lucae
auctoritatem antecessorum et fidei et praedicationi suae optavit,
quanto magis eam evangelio Lucae expostulem, quae evangelio
magistri eius fuit necessaria?
For we should demand the production of
that gospel also which Paul found, that to which he gave his
assent, that with which
shortly afterwards he was anxious that his own should agree, for
his intention in going up to Jerusalem to know and to consult the
apostles was lest perchance he had run in vain, that is, lest
perchance he had not believed as they did, or was not preaching
the gospel in their manner. At length, when he had conferred
with the original authors, and there was agreement concerning
the rule of the faith, they joined their right hands
and from thenceforth divided their spheres of preaching so that
the others should go to the Jews, but Paul to Jews and gentiles.
If he therefore who gave the light to Luke chose to have the
authority of his predecessors for his faith as well as his preaching,
how much more must I require for the gospel of Luke the authority which
was necessary for the gospel of his master?
Tertullian, Against Marcion
4.5.3 (text and translation modified from that of Ernest Evans):
Habet plane et illud ecclesias, sed suas,
tam posteras quam adulteras, quarum si censum requiras,
facilius apostaticum invenias quam apostolicum, Marcione scilicet
conditore, vel aliquo de Marcionis examine. faciunt favos et vespae,
faciunt ecclesias et Marcionitae. eadem auctoritas ecclesiarum
apostolicarum ceteris quoque patrocinabitur evangeliis, quae proinde
per illas et secundum illas habemus, Ioannis dico et Matthaei,
licet et Marcus quod edidit Petri affirmetur, cuius interpres
Marcus. nam et Lucae digestum Paulo adscribere solent.
gospel too has its churches, but they are its own, of late arrival
and spurious. If you search out their ancestry you are more likely
to find it apostatic than apostolic, having for founder either Marcion
or someone from the hive of Marcion. Even wasps make combs,
and Marcionites make churches. That same authority of the
apostolic churches will stand as witness also for the other gospels,
which no less [than that of Luke] we possess by their agency and
according to their text, I mean those of John and Matthew, though that
which Mark produced is stated to be of Peter, whose interpreter
Mark was. The narrative of Luke also they usually attribute to
Early century III.
Origen knows all four canonical
gospels by name.
Victorinus of Pettau.
Late century III.
Victorinus knows all four canonical
gospels by name.
Early century IV.
Eusebius knows all four canonical
gospels by name.
Eusebius, History of the Church 3.4.7-8:
But Luke, who was of the race of the Antiochians,
a physician by profession, especially intimate with Paul, and also well
acquainted with the rest of the apostles, has left demonstrations of therapy
for souls, which he acquired from them, in two inspired books, to wit, the
gospel, in which he testifies that he wrote according to the things which
those who were from the beginning eyewitnesses and ministers of the word
had delivered to him, all of whom, he also says, he followed accurately from the
start,* and the acts of the apostles, which he composed not from what he had
heard but from what he had taken in with his own eyes.
* Refer to the prologue in Luke 1.1-4.
And they say that Paul made mention of the gospel according to him wherever, as if writing concerning some gospel of his own,
he used the words according to my gospel.*
* Refer to Romans 2.16; 16.25; 2 Timothy 2.8.
Late century IV.
From John Chrysostom, homily 1.1 on the Acts
of the Apostles (translation slightly modified from the Nicene
and Post-Nicene Fathers):
But the greater part of this work is occupied with the acts of Paul,
who labored more abundantly than them all.1 And the reason is
that the author of this book, that is, the blessed Luke, was his companion,
a man whose high qualities, sufficiently visible in many other instances,
are especially shown in his firm adherence to his teacher, whom he constantly
followed. Thus, at a time when all had forsaken him, one gone into Galatia,
another into Dalmatia, hear what he says of this disciple: Only Luke is with
me.2 And, giving the Corinthians a charge concerning him, he says:
Whose praise is in the gospel throughout all the churches.3 Again,
when he says: He was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve,4 and:
According to the gospel which you received,5 he means the gospel
of this Luke, so that there can be no mistake in attributing this work to him;
and when I say to him, I mean to Christ. And why then did he not relate
everything, seeing he was with Paul to the end? We may answer, that what is
here written was sufficient for those who would attend, and that the sacred
writers ever addressed themselves to the matter of immediate importance,
whatever it might be at the time; it was no object with them to be writers
of books: in fact, there are many things which they have delivered by
1 Refer to 1 Corinthians 15.10.
2 Refer to 2 Timothy 4.10.
3 Refer to 2 Corinthians 8.18.
4 Refer to 1 Corinthians 15.5.
5 Refer to 1 Corinthians 15.1.
Late century IV or early century V.
Jerome knows all four canonical
gospels by name.
The Monarchian prologues.
Century IV or V.
These Latin prologues
precede the gospels in some manuscripts of the Latin Bible. A prologue is extant for each of the four canonical gospels.
Attestation for the gospel:
The epistles of Ignatius (?),
the gospel of Thomas (?),
the long ending of Mark (?),
the gospel of Peter (?),
Basilides (Hippolytus, Refutation
Marcion (Irenaeus, Against Heresies
1.25.1; 3.11; 4.6.9; 1.27; Tertullian, Against Marcion, book 4; Epiphanius,
the gospel of the Ebionites,
the Epistula Apostolorum,
the Diatessaron of Tatian,
the gospel prologues,
Irenaeus, the Muratorian canon,
Theophilus of Antioch (Jerome, epistle 121),
Celsus (Origen, Against Celsus),
Clement of Alexandria (century II),
Victorinus of Pettau (On the
Apocalypse, book 4),
Ƿ75 (century III),
א, B, 0171,
0181 (century IV), Jerome, A, C, D, L, W,
Refer to my page on gospel
Certain passages in this gospel seem to almost harshly interrupt
their immediate contexts:
- Luke 6.40, about disciples and teachers, interrupts 6.39 and 6.41-42,
both about eyesight.
- Luke 7.29-30 interrupts the dominical words of 7.28 and 7.31-35. Jesus
ceases speaking in 7.29-30 as the narrator adds a comment, but then Jesus
resumes speaking in 7.31 without any kind of Jesus said statement.
It is interesting to note that Matthew 11.12-15 falls in exactly the same
spot as Luke 7.29-30 in the progress of the pericope; Matthew 11.12-15 is
still dominical speech, so the interruption is not obvious, yet the Lucan
parallels to this passage are found elsewhere in Luke (in 16.16 and 1.17).
- Refer also to the dissonance of Luke