The book of Jeremiah.
Counted among the prophets.
None on site.
CCEL: Jeremiah (Hebrew only).
Swete LXX (Greek only).
Gateway (English only).
HTML Bible: Jeremiah (Hebrew and English).
HTML Bible: Jeremiah
(Latin Vulgate only).
Zhubert (Greek and English).
Kata Pi BHS: Jeremiah (Hebrew and English).
Kata Pi LXX: Jeremiah (Greek and English).
Sacred Texts: Jeremiah (polyglot).
Jeremiah at the OT Gateway.
Jeremiah in the Jewish Encyclopedia.
EJW (Peter Kirby).
Jeremiah at Kata Pi (Oesterly and Robinson).
Jeremiah from the Plymouth Brethren.
Introduction to Jeremiah (David Malick).
Outline of Jeremiah (David Malick).
From the Fall of Ninevah to the Fall of Judah
Text and Redaction in Jeremiah's Oracles Against the Nations
(James W. Watts).
Form, Occasion and Redaction in Jeremiah 20
(Sheffield Academic Press).
Violence and Outrage in Jeremiah 20.7-8
(Sheffield Academic Press).
The book of Jeremiah ranks among the latter prophets in the Jewish
The book was originally written in Hebrew, but the ancient Greek
translation known as the Septuagint
(abbreviated LXX) is also a very important witness to the text. The
material is arranged in a different order in the LXX, however, than
in the Masoretic text. On page 350
of volume 3 of his edition of the LXX, H. B. Swete offers a helpful
chart that collates the material between the Hebrew and Greek versions.
Peter Kirby (Early Jewish Writings).
Peter Kirby surveys scholars writing on the book of Jeremiah:
Guy P. Couturier writes:
E. Podechard (RB 37  181-97) separated three different collections,
which have been simply joined to one another. First is the scroll of 605;
Podechard thinks that it is now included, for the most part, in chs. 1-17,
where the oracles are set in their chronological order, as far as we know.
Then chs. 18-20 were joined, being a separate collection of symbolic actions,
and still later, chs. 21-23, the booklets on kings and prophets. Finally,
the book of the confessions was inserted at different places in this first
The second collection, chs. 26-35, is Baruch's redactional work; the theme
is the restoration of Yahweh's people. Here also Podechard believes that the
compiler used already existing smaller units: chs. 26-29 are a collection
of Jeremiah's altercations with the false prophets, thus forming a kind of
apology of true prophecy; chs. 30-31 preserve the Prophet's early prophecies
on the restoration of Israel; chs. 32-33 unite the similar oracles under Zedekiah;
chs. 34-35 are an appendix on diverse matters.
The third and last section, chs. 36-45, is easily recognized as Jeremiah's
biography by Baruch. The latter prefaced his work with the story of the scroll
of 605, which introduces him as Jeremiah's chief collaborator, and he closed
it by the short oracle of hope, which e deserved for his collaboration. Finally,
Podechard holds that the collection of oracles against the nations (chs. 46-51)
has been set at two different placesafter 25:13b and in ch. 45by
very old traditions and that we cannot know exactly the true reasons. The
present form of Jer can be dated at the end of the Exile or soon after. Eissfeldt
presents a similar explanation, although he would count a greater number of
independent small collections, according to literary forms (Eissfeldt, Einl.).
Thomas W. Overholt writes: "But chap. 36 also illustrates the difficulty
that attends any attempt to construct a series of steps in the composition of
the book of Jeremiah as we have it. The narrative itself is clear enough: during
the years 605-604 B.C. the prophet is said to have twice dictated to Baruch
a collection of his utterances spanning the whole period of his activity. The
second scroll was dictated after the king destroyed the first. It contained
'all the words' of the first scroll, as well as 'many words like them' (36:32).
If we assume that the second edition of the scroll formed the nucleus of the
subsequent collection of materials associated with Jeremiah, then we should
be able to find that scroll in the present book, as well as evidence of the
contents of its predecessor. But we cannot, at least not with any certainty.
Over the years a variety of hypotheses about the contents of the scroll have
been offered, some of them quite complicated. Even a brief sampling of opinionit
has been claimed that the scroll is to be found in chaps. 1-6, or in 1:4-9 plus
chaps. 46-47 plus 4:5-6:26 plus 14:1-15:3, or in chaps. 1-11, or in the 'prose
sermons'indicates both the variety of hypotheses that have been proposed
and the lack of consensus on the matter." (Harper's Bible Commentary,
James King West writes: "We possess more biographical data on Jeremiah
than on any other prophet. Included are a number of personal laments or 'confessions'
which allow us a view of the inner life of a prophet as do no other prophetic
materials in the Old Testament. According to the superscription to the book,
his career began in the thirteenth year of Josiah's reign (627 B.C.) and extended
through the destruction of Jerusalem (587 B.C.), a total of forty years. Born
into a priestly family of the village of Anathoth, just two miles northeast
of Jerusalem, he was at home within the city itself and was imprisoned there
during the Babylonian siege. Similar to Isaiah, he had intermittent and predominantly
unhappy encounters with the reigning moncarchs. A devoted follower and secretary
named Baruch recorded his prophecies and, most probably, wrote his memoirs.
Following a long, turbulent, and faithful career, the prophet was at last taken
against his will into Egypt by a group of Judeans fleeing Nebuchadnezzar's reprisals
for the assassination of Gedeliah." (Introduction to the Old Testament,
Samuel Sandmel writes: "Jeremiah expands on the theme, common also to
Amos, Isaiah, and Habakkuk, that Yahve controls history. The historian would
say, very simply, that the Babylonians conquered Judah and transported the leading
citizens to Babylonia. The prophet, however, expresses this differently: because
of Israel's sins, Yahve caused the Babylonians to invade in order to punish
Judah. Through the Babylonians, Yahve sent Judah into exile. Jeremiah's contribution
to the theme was the idea that Yahve did not bring about these events merely
to punish, but to effect moral regeneration. The Babylonian incident was not
doom, nor, as Jeremiah interpreted matters, would Yahve fix doom as the climax
of history. Rather, Yahve was accompanying the means for moral regeneration
with a new relationship, that is, with a new covenant. Jeremiah, then, continued
the tradition of intepreting the events of history as the revelation of Yahve's
will and plan. Prior to the Babylonian conquest, he said that Yahve's doom was
inevitable. But once the events had happened, Jeremiah said that this was not
doom, but Yahve's plan to refine and purify the Judeans." (The Hebrew
Scriptures, p. 148)