Jesus before the high priest (or sanhedrin).

Matthew 26.59-66 = Mark 14.55-64 = Luke 22.66-71  (John 18.19-24).

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Notes and quotes.

§ I note the following agreements between Matthew and Luke against Mark:

  1. Matthew 26.63 has ημιν ειπης ει συ ει ο Χριστος (might say to us if you are the Christ) and Luke 22.67 has ει συ ει ο Χριστος ειπον ημιν (if you are the Christ say it to us); Mark 14.61 has only συ ει ο Χριστος (you are the Christ or are you the Christ).
  2. Matthew 26.64 has απ αρτι (from this moment) and Luke 22.69 has απο του νυν (from now on) where Mark 14.62 has no parallel.
  3. Matthew 26.64 has συ ειπας (you [singular] said) and Luke 22.70 has υμεις λεγετε (you [plural] say) where Mark 14.62 has no parallel.

Together, I count these as a major agreement against Mark.

§ Didache 16.6-8:

Και τοτε φανησεται τα σημεια της αληθειας, πρωτον σημειον εκπετασεως εν ουρανω, ειτα σημειον φωνης σαλπιγγος, και το τριτον αναστασις νεκρων, ου παντων δε, αλλ ως ερρεθη· Ηξει ο κυριος και παντες οι αγιοι μετ αυτου. τοτε οψεται ο κοσμος τον κυριον ερχομενον επανω των νεφελων του ουρανου.

And then shall appear the signs of the truth, first the sign of a stretching out in heaven, then the sign of the voice of a trumpet, and the third the resurrection of the dead, but not of all, but as it is said: The Lord shall come and all his saints with him.* Then the world will see the Lord coming upon the clouds of heaven.

* Refer to Zechariah 14.5.

§ Acts 6.41:

Ακηκοαμεν γαρ λεγοντος οτι, Ιησους ο Ναζωραιος ουτος καταλυσει τον τοπον τουτον και αλλαξει τα εθη α παρεδωκεν ημιν Μωυσης.

For we have heard [Stephen] saying that this Jesus the Nazarene will destroy this place and change the customs that Moses delivered to us.

§ Martyrdom of Polycarp 8.2:

Και υπηντα αυτω ο ειρηναρχος Ηρωδης και ο πατηρ αυτου Νικητης, οι και μεταθεντες αυτον επι την καρουχαν επειθον παρακαθεζομενοι και λεγοντες· Τι γαρ κακον εστιν ειπεν, κυριος Καισαρ, και επιθυσαι, και τα τουτοις ακολουθα, και διασωζεσθαι; ο δε τα μεν πρωτα ουκ απεκρινατο αυτοις, επιμενοντων δε αυτων εφη· Ου μελλω ποιειν ο συμβουλευετε μοι.

And Herod the captain of police and his father Nicetes met him; they also removed him to the carriage and were persuading him, sitting next to him and saying: What evil is there in saying that Caesar is Lord and sacrificing [or offering incense], and other such things following, and being saved? And he at first did not answer them, but when they kept at it he said: I am not going to do what you counsel me to do.

§ Robert H. Gundry, Mark: A Commentary on His Apology for the Cross, pages 915-916:

H. Anderson ([The Gospel of Mark, page] 330) thinks that since Jesus respectfully substituted "the Power" for God's name, Mark probably presents the charge of blasphemy as false. But his failing to describe this charge as false contrasts with his repeated descriptions of the preceding testimonies as false (vv 56-59), and he would probably have explained to his Gentile audience the Jewish requirement that capitally punishable blasphemy include a pronunciation of the tetragrammaton (m. Sanh. 7.5; cf. Mark 7.3-4 for an explanation of this sort). For other understandings of Jesus' supposed blasphemy, see D. R. Catchpole, Trial 126-48; idem in Tyn[dale] Bul[letin] 16 (1965) 10-18.

Our attention better goes to the just-cited passage m. Sanh. 7.5. It says that a blasphemer is not liable, i.e. cannot be condemned to death, unless the blasphemy has included a pronunciation of the tetragrammaton (so also Lev 24:16 LXX ["but let (the one) naming the name of 'Lord' (MT: יהוה) die by death"]; Philo Mos. 2.37 §§203-4; 2.38 §§206-8; b. Ker. 7b; cf. m. Yoma 3:8; 6:2; m. Sota 7:6 for a limitation in m. Sanh. 7:5 to the tetragrammaton, i.e. for an exclusion of other divine names; and see Mark 2:7 for a supposed blasphemy of God that did not include a pronunciation of the tetragrammaton and that therefore did not draw a capital charge). Yet when giving testimony during a trial, witnesses to capital blasphemy use a substitute for the tetragrammaton. Only in closing does the chief witness pronounce the tetragrammaton in quoting the blasphemy. Before the chief witness quotes it with the tetragrammaton, however, the court is cleared of observers. Only the judges, the witnesses, and the accused remain. On hearing the chief witness pronounce the tetragrammaton, the judges stand up and tear their garments. Of the reasons listed in Str[ack]-B[illerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament] 1. 1007 for tearing one's garments, only the hearing of the tetragrammaton has a legal setting (D. Juel, Messiah and Temple 97). In view of the mishnaic regulation that witnesses to capital blasphemy use a substitute for the tetragrammaton so long as an audience of non-jurists are present, then, how would we expect Jesus' blasphemy — if it did include a pronunciation of the tetragrammaton — to be quoted by witnesses, in his case by the judges themselves, to non-jurists? Why, of course, with a substitute for the tetragrammaton just as in Mark's text. Thus Jesus did pronounce the tetragrammaton. It is the right hand of יהוה, "YHWH," concerning which Ps 110:1 speaks; so Jesus must have said, "I am, and you will see the Son of man sitting at [the] right [hand] of Yahweh...," and the Sanhedrists who later reported to non-jurists what Jesus had said used "the Power" as a substitute for Jesus's "Yahweh" (cf. the substitution of "God" for "Lord" [κύριος — Greek for the tetragrammaton] in quotations of Ps 110.1 at Acts 2:34-35 with 2:36; Rom 8:34; Eph 1:20 with 1:17; Col 3:1; Heb 1:13; 8:1; 12:2; also the paucity of occurrences of the tetragrammaton in Q[umran] L[iterature] and the use of four dots and of archaic Hebrew characters for it also in QL and even in pre-Christian manuscripts of the LXX, where we might have expected ο̒ κύριος, "the Lord" [for details see H. Stegemann in Qumrân 195-96, 200-202]).

§ A list of the Jewish high priests. List formatted and slightly changed from that of Whiston (note 19).

  1. Ananelus.
  2. Aristobulus.
  3. Jesus the son of Fabus.
  4. Simon the son of Boethus.
  5. Marthias the son of Theophiltu.
  6. Joazar the son of Boethus.
  7. Eleazar the son of Boethus.
  8. Jesus the son of Sic.
  9. Ananus (or Annas) the son of Seth.*
  10. Ismael the son of Fabus.
  11. Eleazar the son of Ananus.**
  12. Simon the son of Camithus.
  13. Josephus Caiaphas the son-in-law to Ananus.**
  14. Jonathan the son of Ananus.**
  15. Theophilus the son of Ananus and brother of Jonathan.**
  16. Simon the son of Boethus.
  17. Matthias the son of Ananus and brother of Jonathan.**
  18. Aljoneus.
  19. Josephus the son of Camydus.
  20. Ananias the son of Nebedeus.
  21. Jonathas.
  22. Ismael the son of Fabi.
  23. Joseph Cabi the son of Simon.
  24. Ananus the son of Ananus.**
  25. Jesus the son of Damneus.
  26. Jesus the son of Gamaliel.
  27. Matthias the son of Theophilus.
  28. Phannias the son of Samuel.

The original Ananus is marked with a single * asterisk, the other Ananides with double ** asterisks.