Not I, but the Lord.

The sayings of Jesus in early Christian literature.


Some of our many sources for primitive Christianity.

A scavenger hunt through early Christian literature, hunting for material that may have derived from the historical Jesus. Since gospels, as a genre (to vastly oversimplify matters!), deal specifically with the Jesus tradition, I limit this discussion to the other kinds of literature, those whose main topic is not the historical Jesus per se. At issue, then, are the acts, the epistles, the apocalypses, and the miscellaneous other kinds of writings that have come down to us.

Much of this material comes from Helmut Koester, Ancient Christian Gospels 2.1.1-4, pages 49-75.

In the Pauline epistles.

References.

1 Corinthians 7.10-11 (confer Matthew 19.3-9 = Mark 10.2-12; Matthew 5.32 = Luke 16.18):

Τοις δε γεγαμηκοσιν παραγγελλω, ουκ εγω αλλα ο κυριος, γυναικα απο ανδρος μη χωρισθηναι, εαν δε και χωρισθη, μενετω αγαμος η τω ανδρι καταλλαγητω, και ανδρα γυναικα μη αφιεναι.

But to those who have married I instruct, not I but the Lord, that the wife not depart from the husband, but, if she does depart, let her remain unmarried or let her reconcile with the husband, and that the man not put the wife away.

Contrast this dominical instruction with 1 Corinthians 7.12-13, 25, in which Paul disclaims any explicit teaching from the Lord:

Τοις δε λοιποις λεγω εγω, ουχ ο κυριος· Ει τις αδελφος γυναικα εχει απιστον, και αυτη συνευδοκει οικειν μετ αυτου, μη αφιετω αυτην· και γυνη ει τις εχει ανδρα απιστον, και ουτος συνευδοκει οικειν μετ αυτης, μη αφιετω τον ανδρα.

But to the rest I say, not the Lord: If any brother has an unbelieving wife, and she consents to house with him, let him not send her away. And the wife, if any has an unbelieving husband, and he consents to house with her, let her not send away the husband.

I have retained the customary translation of απιστος as unbelieving, though its root word is πιστις, or faith.

Περι δε των παρθενων επιταγην κυριου ουκ εχω, γνωμην δε διδωμι ως ηλεημενος υπο κυριου πιστος ειναι.

But concerning maidens an order of the Lord I do not have, but I give an opinion as one who, having been shown mercy by the Lord, is faithful.

1 Corinthians 9.14 (confer Matthew 10.10b = Luke 10.7a):

Ουτως και ο κυριος διεταξεν τοις το ευαγγελιον καταγγελλουσιν εκ του ευαγγελιου ζην.

Thus also did the Lord order those who proclaim the gospel to live from the gospel.

1 Corinthians 11.23-26 (confer Matthew 26.26-28 = Mark 14.22-24 = Luke 22.17-20):

Εγω γαρ παρελαβον απο του κυριου ο και παρεδωκα υμιν, οτι ο κυριος Ιησους εν τη νυκτι η παρεδιδετο ελαβεν αρτον και ευχαριστησας εκλασεν και ειπεν· Τουτο μου εστιν το σωμα το υπερ υμων· τουτο ποιειτε εις την εμην αναμνησιν. ωσαυτως και το ποτηριον μετα το δειπνησαι, λεγων· Τουτο το ποτηριον η καινη διαθηκη εστιν εν τω εμω αιματι· τουτο ποιειτε, οσακις εαν πινητε, εις την εμην αναμνησιν. οσακις γαρ εαν εσθιητε τον αρτον τουτον και το ποτηριον πινητε, τον θανατον του κυριου καταγγελλετε αχρις ου ελθη.

For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus, on the night in which he was delivered up, took bread and having given thanks broke it and said: This is my body which is for you. This do unto my memory. Likewise also the cup after the supper, saying: This cup is the new testament in my blood. This do, as often as you drink, unto my memory. For, as often as you should eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the death of the Lord until he comes.

1 Corinthians 14.37:

Ει τις δοκει προφητης ειναι η πνευματικος, επιγινωσκετω α γραφω υμιν, οτι κυριου εστιν εντολη.

If any supposes that he is a prophet or spiritual, let him recognize the things that I write you, that they are a command of the Lord.

1 Thessalonians 4.15-17 (confer Matthew 24.30b-31 for the imagery):

Τουτο γαρ υμιν λεγομεν εν λογω κυριου, οτι ημεις οι ζωντες οι περιλειπομενοι εις την παρουσιαν του κυριου ου μη φθασωμεν τους κοιμηθεντας, οτι αυτος ο κυριος εν κελευσματι, εν φωνη αρχαγγελου και εν σαλπιγγι θεου, καταβησεται απ ουρανου και οι νεκροι εν Χριστω αναστησονται πρωτον, επειτα ημεις οι ζωντες οι περιλειπομενοι αμα συν αυτοις αρπαγησομεθα εν νεφελαις εις απαντησιν του κυριου εις αερα· και ουτως παντοτε συν κυριω εσομεθα.

For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive and remain to the advent of the Lord will not precede those who have fallen asleep, since the Lord himself, with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, will descend from heaven, and the dead in Christ will rise first. Afterward we who are alive and remain will be raptured up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and thus we will be with the Lord for all time.

1 Timothy 5.17-18 (confer Luke 10.7a):

Οι καλως προεστωτες πρεσβυτεροι διπλης τιμης αξιουσθωσαν, μαλιστα οι κοπιωντες εν λογω και διδασκαλια· λεγει γαρ η γραφη· Βουν αλοωντα ου φιμωσεις, και· Αξιος ο εργατης του μισθου αυτου.

Let the elders who preside well be deemed worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in word and teaching. For the scripture says: The ox you shall not muzzle while threshing, and: Worthy is the worker of his wage.

Allusions.

I have marked with an asterisk * two passages that Koester deems more dubious than the other cases, and with two asterisks ** one passage that he does not mention. Also, he places the first pastoral epistle to Timothy in a category with the Acts.

Romans 12.14 (confer Matthew 5.44 = Luke 6.27-28):

Ευλογειτε τους διωκοντας υμας, ευλογειτε και μη καταρασθε.

Bless those who persecute you, bless and do not curse.

Romans 12.17; 1 Thessalonians 5.15 (confer Matthew 5.44 = Luke 6.27-28):

...μηδενι κακον αντι κακου αποδιδοντες, προνοουμενοι καλα ενωπιον παντων ανθρωπων.

...never giving back evil for evil, taking thought of lovely things before all men.

Ορατε μη τις κακον αντι κακου τινι αποδω, αλλα παντοτε το αγαθον διωκετε εις αλληλους και εις παντας.

See that no one give back evil for evil to anyone, but in all ways pursue the good for each other and for all.

Romans 12.18 (confer Mark 9.50b):*

...τι δυνατον, το εξ υμων, μετα παντων ανθρωπων ειρηνευοντες.

...if possible, as it is up to you, having peace with all men.

Romans 13.7 (confer Matthew 22.21 = Mark 12.17 = Luke 20.25):

Αποδοτε πασιν τας οφειλας, τω τον φορον τον φορον, τω το τελος το τελος, τω τον φοβον τον φοβον, τω την τιμην την τιμην.

Give back to all what is due, tribute to whom tribute, toll to whom toll, fear to whom fear, honor to whom honor.

Romans 14.10 (confer Matthew 7.1-2 = Luke 6.37, 38b):*

Συ δε τι κρινεις τον αδελφον σου; η και συ τι εξουθενεις τον αδελφον σου; παντες γαρ παραστησομεθα τω βηματι του θεου.

But you, why do you judge your brother? Or you also, why count your brother as nobody? For we all shall stand at the judgment-seat of God.

Romans 14.13 (confer Matthew 18.6 = Mark 9.42 = Luke 17.2; Matthew 18.7 = Luke 17.1):

Μηκετι ουν αλληλους κρινωμεν· αλλα τουτο κρινατε μαλλον, το μη τιθεναι προσκομμα τω αδελφω η σκανδαλον.

Let us therefore not judge one another any longer. But this judge rather, not to place an obstacle or scandal on the brother.

Romans 14.14 (confer Matthew 15.11 = Mark 7.18-19 = Luke 11.41):

Οιδα και πεπεισμαι εν κυριω Ιησου οτι ουδεν κοινον δι εαυτου· ει μη τω λογιζομενω τι κοινον ειναι, εκεινω κοινον.

I know and am persuased in the Lord Jesus that nothing is common of itself, except that for him who reasons something to be common, to him it is common.

Galatians 1.11-12, 16b (confer Matthew 16.17):**

Γνωριζω γαρ υμιν, αδελφοι, το ευαγγελιον το ευαγγελισθεν υπ εμου οτι ουκ εστιν κατα ανθρωπον· ουδε γαρ εγω παρα ανθρωπου παρελαβον αυτο, ουτε εδιδαχθην, αλλα δι αποκαλυψεως Ιησου Χριστου.

...ευθεως ου προσανεθεμην σαρκι και αιματι....

For let it be known to you, brethren, the gospel evangelized by me, that it is not according to man. For I neither received it from man, nor was I taught it, but it was through a revelation of Jesus Christ.

...I did not immediately take counsel with flesh and blood....

1 Thessalonians 5.2 (confer Matthew 24.43):

Αυτοι γαρ ακριβως οιδατε οτι ημερα κυριου ως κλεπτης εν νυκτι ουτως ερχεται.

For you yourselves know accurately that the day of the Lord will come thus, as a thief in the night.

1 Thessalonians 5.13 (confer Mark 9.50b):

...και ηγεισθαι αυτους υπερεκπερισσου εν αγαπη δια το εργον αυτων. ειρηνευετε εν εαυτοις.

...and regard them excessively in love through their work. Live in peace among yourselves.

See also Matthew 11.25-26 = Luke 10.21 for parallels with much of 1 Corinthians 1-4 (especially 2.7, 10; 3.1, 13; 4.5). Matthew 13.35 is similar to 1 Corinthians 2.7; 4.5; 14.25 (confer Psalm 77.2 LXX); also Mark 4.22; Thomas 5-6. Confer 1 Corinthians 2.9 with Thomas 17, then Matthew 13.16-17 = Luke 10.23-24. The signs, preaching, and wisdom of 1 Corinthians 1.22 find their only other conjunction in Matthew 12.38-42 = Luke 11.29-32. 1 Corinthians 4.8 closely resembles Thomas 2, a saying also found in the gospel according to the Hebrews, according to Clement of Alexandria (in Miscellanies 2.9).

See also Galatians 4.6 and Romans 8.15; 1 Corinthians 13.2-3 (confer Matthew 17.20; 19.21); Romans 15.7 and 1 Corinthians 9.19; 10.33 (confer Matthew 20.26-28); 1 Corinthians 1.17-18 (confer Matthew 5.37).

Exhortations to imitate Christ: Romans 15.2-3; 1 Corinthians 11.1; Philippians 2.5; Ephesians 5.1-2.

Mission materials: Romans 16.19; 1 Corinthians 9.1, 4-5, 14-16, 18; 10.27; 2 Corinthians 11.7; 12.12; Galatians 2.8-9; 1 Thessalonians 4.8.

Helmut Koester, Ancient Christian Gospels, page 55:

There is most likely another collection of sayings of Jesus of a very different character which was known to Paul. The first chapters of Paul's First Letter to the Corinthians reveal that there were, at a very early date, believers who had a different perception of the central Christian message.

Helmut Koester, Ancient Christian Gospels, page 62:

Can the character of the collection of sayings used by the Corinthians be determined with more accuracy? It has already been said that the Q sayings used here are not typical for this document. In fact, the connections to Q material do not go beyond Q/Luke 10:21-24 (perhaps also Q/Luke 11:29-32). The other sayings to which Paul alludes in 1 Corinthians 1-4 do not belong to Q: Matt 13:35; Mark 4:22; Gos. Thom. ##2, 5-6, and 17. The topic of the revelation of hidden wisdom, at best marginal in Q, unites all the sayings to which Paul alludes in this context. It will be seen that it is important for the sayings collections that have been used for the composition of the Gospel of Thomas and which were also known in the Johannine tradition.

In the epistle of James.

James 1.5; 4.2c-3 (confer Matthew 7.7 = Luke 11.9):

Ει δε τις υμων λειπεται σοφιας, αιτειτω παρα του διδοντος θεου πασιν απλως και μη ονειδιζοντος, και δοθησεται αυτω.

But if any of you lacks wisdom, let him seek from the God who gives all things generously and does not reproach, and it shall be given him.

Ουκ εχετε δια το μη αιτεισθαι υμας· αιτειτε και ου λαμβανετε, διοτι κακως αιτεισθε, ινα εν ταις ηδοναις υμων δαπανησητε.

You have not because you ask not. You ask and do not receive, because you ask wickedly, that you might spend it on your pleasures.

James 2.5 (confer Matthew 5.3 = Luke 6.20b):

Ακουσατε, αδελφοι μου αγαπητοι. ουχ ο θεος εξελεξατο τους πτωχους τω κοσμω πλουσιους εν πιστει και κληρονομους της βασιλειας ης επηγγειλατο τοις αγαπωσιν αυτον;

Listen, my beloved brethren. Did God not elect the poor of the world to be rich in faith and heirs of the kingdom which he promised to those who love him?

James 4.9 (confer Matthew 5.4 = Luke 6.21b):

Ταλαιπωρησατε και πενθησατε και κλαυσατε· ο γελως υμων εις πενθος μετατραπητω και η χαρα εις κατηφειαν.

Be miserable and mourn and weep! Let your laughter be changed into mourning and your joy into gloom.

James 4.10 (confer Matthew 23.12 = Luke 14.11):

Ταπεινωθητε ενωπιον κυριου, και υψωσει υμας.

Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he shall exalt you.

James 5.1 (confer Luke 6.24-25):

Αγε νυν οι πλουσιοι, κλαυσατε ολολυζοντες επι ταις ταλαιπωριαις υμων ταις επερχομεναις.

Come now, you rich, weep howling over your miseries which are coming upon you!

James 5.2-3a (confer Matthew 6.20 = Luke 12.33b; 1 Enoch 97.8-10):

Ο πλουτος υμων σεσηπεν και τα ιματια υμων σητοβρωτα γεγονεν, ο χρυσος υμων και ο αργυρος κατιωται, και ο ιος αυτων εις μαρτυριον υμιν εσται και φαγεται τας σαρκας υμων ως πυρ.

Your riches have rotted and your attire has become moth-eaten, Your gold and silver rust, and their rust shall be for a testimony to you and shall eat your flesh as a fire.

James 5.12 (confer Matthew 5.34-37):

Προ παντων δε, αδελφοι μου, μη ομνυετε, μητε τον ουρανον μητε την γην μητε αλλον τινα ορκον· ητω δε υμων το Ναι ναι και το Ου ου, ινα μη υπο κρισιν πεσητε.

But above all, my brethren, do not swear, neither by heaven nor by earth nor by any other oath. But let your yes be yes and your no be no, that you might not fall under judgment.

In the Petrine epistles.

1 Peter 2.12b (confer Matthew 5.16b):

Την αναστροφην υμων εν τοις εθνεσιν εχοντες καλην, ινα εν ω καταλαλουσιν υμων ως κακοποιων εκ των καλων εργων εποπτευοντες δοξασωσιν τον θεον εν ημερα επισκοπης.

Hold your behavior well among the gentiles, so that in that in which they speak against you as evildoers they might from your good works, observing you, glorify God in the day of visitation.

1 Peter 2.19-20 (confer Luke 6.32-33):

Τουτο γαρ χαρις ει δια συνειδησιν θεου υποφερει τις λυπας πασχων αδικως. ποιον γαρ κλεος ει αμαρτανοντες και κολαφιζομενοι υπομενειτε; αλλ ει αγαθοποιουντες και πασχοντες υπομενειτε, τουτο χαρις παρα θεω.

For this is grace, if for the sake of the conscience of God one bears up under sorrows, suffering unjustly. For what kind of credit if you sin and are mistreated and endure? But if you do good and suffer and endure, this is grace before God.

1 Peter 3.9 (confer Luke 6.28a):

...μη αποδιδοντες κακον αντι κακου η λοιδοριαν αντι λοιδοριας, τουναντιον δε ευλογουντες, οτι εις τουτο εκληθητε ινα ευλογιαν κληρονομησητε.

...not giving back evil for evil or insult for insult, but blessing instead, since unto this you were called, that you might inherit a blessing.

1 Peter 3.14 (confer Matthew 5.10):

Αλλ ει και πασχοιτε δια δικαιοσυνην μακαριοι.

But, even if you should suffer for the sake of justice, you are blessed.

1 Peter 3.16 (confer Luke 6.28b):

...αλλα μετα πραυτητος και φοβου, συνειδησιν εχοντες αγαθην, ινα εν ω καταλαλεισθε καταισχυνθωσιν οι επηρεαζοντες υμων την αγαθην εν Χριστω αναστροφην.

...but with gentleness and fear, having a good conscience, so that in that in which you are spoken against they might be ashamed who revile your good behavior in Christ.

According to Koester (page 64, note 3), the Greek word επηρεαζειν appears only in 1 Peter 3.16 and Luke 6.28b in the New Testament, and not at all in the apostolic fathers.

1 Peter 4.14 (confer Luke 6.22):

Ει ονειδιζεσθε εν ονοματι Χριστου, μακαριοι, οτι το της δοξης και το του θεου πνευμα εφ υμας αναπαυεται.

If you are reproached in the name of Christ, you are blessed, since the spirit of glory and of God upon you rests.

Helmut Koester, Ancient Christian Gospels, page 65:

In... 1 Pet 4:14; 3:9 and 16; 2:19-20... the author of this Epistle uses material that belongs to the nucleus of the Q materials for the Sermon on the Plain/Sermon on the Mount (Q/Luke 6:22, 28, 32-33). It is the same collection that also provided the sayings for Rom 12-14.
The other two uses of sayings of Jesus in 1 Peter (3:14; 2:12b) concern sayings of a typical Matthean character. Both Matt 5:10 and Matt 5:16b appear to be Matthean additions to the Q material that formed the basis for this section of the Sermon on the Mount. However, it is unlikely that these sayings are creations of the author of the Gospel of Matthew. Rather, they were already part of a Jewish-Christian document that Matthew used in chapters 5-7.

In the epistle of Clement of Rome.

1 Clement 13.1-2 (one of the central texts of an early apostolic catechism, also given in Polycarp to the Philippians 2.3a and Luke 6.31, 36-38, with related parallels in Matthew 5.7; 6.14; 7.2; 7.12a):

Ταπεινοφρονησωμεν ουν, αδελφοι, αποθεμενοι πασαν αλαζονειαν και τυφος και αφροσυνην και οργας, και ποιησωμεν το γεγραμμενον· λεγει γαρ το πνευμα το αγιον· Μη καυχασθω ο σοφος εν τη σοφια αυτου, μηδε ο ισχυρος εν τη ισχυι αυτου, μηδε ο πλουσιος εν τω πλουτω αυτου, αλλα η ο καυχωμενος εν κυριω καυχασθω, του εκζητειν αυτον και ποιεν κριμα και δικαιοσυνην, μαλιστα μεμνημενοι των λογων του κυριου Ιησου, ους ελαλησεν διδασκων επιεικειαν και μακροθυμιαν. ουτως γαρ ειπεν· Ελεατε ινα ελεηθητε· αφιετε ινα αφεθη υμιν· ως ποιειτε, ουτω ποιηθησεται υμιν· ως διδοτε, ουτως δοθησεται υμιν· ως κρινετε, ουτως κριθησεσθε· ως χρηστευεσθε, ουτως χρηστευθησεται υμιν· ω μετρω μετρειτε, εν αυτω μετρηθησεται υμιν.

Let us therefore be humbleminded, brethren, putting away all arrogance and pride and folly and wrath, and let us do what was written. For the holy spirit says: Let not the wise man boast in his wisdom, nor the strong man in his strength, nor the rich man in his riches, but rather let him who boasts boast in the Lord, to seek him and to do judgment and justice, especially remembering the words of the Lord Jesus, which he spoke teaching kindness and longsuffering. For thus he said: Show mercy that you might be shown mercy. Forgive that it might be forgiven you. As you do, so it will be done for you. As you give, so it will be given to you. As you judge, so you will be judged. As you show kindness, so kindness will be shown to you. With what measure you measure, by the same will it be measured to you.

Helmut Koester, Ancient Christian Gospels, pages 68-69:

Since both 1 Peter and 1 Clement were written in Rome at approximately the same time, it is quite possible that they are both witnesses to the existence in Rome of a sayings book that was identical with, or related to, the Jewish-Christian writing which, as Hans Dieter Betz has argued, was the source of Matthew 5-7.

Koester refers to Hans Dieter Betz, Essays on the Sermon on the Mount, 1985, passim.

On the very similar passage in the epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 2.3a...:

...μνημονευοντες δε ων ειπεν ο κυριος διδασκων· Μη κρινετε ινα μη κριθητε· αφιετε, και αφεθησεται υμιν· ελεατε ινα ελεηθητε· ω μετρω μετρειτε, αντιμετρηθησεται υμιν.

...but remembering what the Lord said teaching: Judge not that you might not be judged. Forgive, and it will be forgiven you. Show mercy that you might be shown mercy. With what measure you measure, it will be measured back to you.

...Koester writes on pages 19-20 of Ancient Christian Gospels:

One of these quotations, Pol. Phil. 2.3a, is copied from the quotation of the sayings of Jesus in 1 Clem. 13.1-2, including the quotation formula ("Remember what the Lord said when he was teaching"). However, while the quote in 1 Clem. 13.2 had been drawn from the oral tradition, Polycarp, who knew the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, corrected the text in order to establish a more faithful agreement of Jesus' words with the wording of the written gospels from which he has also drawn his other gospel materials (Phil. 2.3b; 7.2; 12.3). At the same time, it is remarkable that Polycarp never uses the term "gospel" for these documents and that the words of Jesus are still quoted as if they were sayings drawn from the oral tradition.

1 Clement 16.17 (confer Matthew 11.29; Thomas 90):

Ορατε ανδρες αγαπητοι, τις ο υπογραμμος ο δεδομενος ημιν· ει γαρ ο κυριος ουτως εταπεινοφρονησεν, τι ποιησωμεν ημεις οι υπο τον ζυγον της χαριτος αυτου δι αυτου ελθοντες;

See, beloved men, what example has been given to us. For, if the Lord was thus humbleminded, what shall we do who came through him under the yoke of his grace?

1 Clement 24.4-5 (confer Matthew 13.3-9 = Mark 4.2-9 = Luke 8.4-8; Thomas 9):

Λαβωμεν τους καρπους· ο σπορος πως και τινα τροπον γινεται; εξηλθεν ο σπειρων και εβαλεν εις την γην εκαστον των σπερματων, ατινα πεσοντα εις την γην ξηρα και γυμνα διαλυεται. ειτ εκ της διαλυσεως η μεγαλειοτης της προνοιας του δεσποτου ανιστησιν αυτα, και εκ του ενος πλειονα αυξει και εκφερει καρπον.

Let us take the fruits. The sowing, how and in what way does it happen? The sower went out and cast onto the earth each of the seeds, which having fallen dry and naked onto the earth are dissolved. Then after the dissolution the greatness of the provision of the master raises them up, and from the one many more grow and bear forth fruit.

1 Clement 46.8 (confer Matthew 18.6-7 = Mark 9.42 = Luke 17.1-2; Mark 14.21):

Μνησθητε των λογων Ιησου του κυριου ημων, ειπεν γαρ· Ουαι τω ανθρωπω εκεινω· καλον ην αυτω ει ουκ εγεννηθη η ενα των εκλεκτων μου σκανδαλισαι· κρειτον ην αυτω περιτεθηναι μυλον και καταποντισθηναι εις την θαλασσαν η ενα των εκλεκτων μου διαστρεψαι.

Remember the words of our Lord Jesus, for he said: Woe to that man! It would be good for him if he were not born, rather than that he should scandalize one of my elect ones. It would be better for him to place a millstone about him and be sunk into the sea than that he should turn away one of my elect ones.

In the Acts.

Acts 6.14 (confer Matthew 26.61 = Mark 14.58; Matthew 27.39-40 = Mark 15.29-30; Luke 19.43-44; John 2.19-21; Thomas 71), on the destruction of the temple:

Ακηκοαμεν γαρ αυτου λεγοντος οτι, Ιησους ο Ναζωραιος ουτος καταλυσει τον τοπον τουτον και αλλαξει τα εθη α παρεδωκεν ημιν Μωυσης.

For we have heard him saying that this Jesus the Nazarene will destroy this place and change the customs that Moses delivered to us.

Acts 11.16:

Εμνησθην δε του ρηματος του κυριου ως ελεγεν· Ιωαννης μεν εβαπτισεν υδατι, υμεις δε βαπτισθησεσθε εν πνευματι αγιω.

And I remembered the word of the Lord, how he said: John baptized with water, but you shall be baptized in the holy spirit.

Acts 20.35b (confer Didache 1.5):

...μνημονευειν τε των λογων του κυριου Ιησου οτι αυτος ειπεν· Μακαριον εστιν μαλλον διδοναι η λαμβανειν.

...and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that he himself said: It is blessed rather to give than to receive.

In the Didache.

Koester does not have this category, but touches upon the use of the term gospel in the Didache on pages 16-17.

Didache 1.3-2.1 (one of the central texts of an early apostolic catechism, also given in Luke 6.27-36 and Matthew 5.38-48; 7.12a):

Τουτων δε των λογων η διδαχη εστιν αυτη· Ευλογειτε τους καταρωμενους υμιν και προσευχεσθε υπερ των εχθρων υμων, νηστευετε δε υπερ των διωκοντων υμας, ποια γαρ χαρις εαν αγαπατε τους αγαπωντας υμας; ουχι και τα εθνη το αυτο ποιουσιν; υμεις δε αγαπατε τους μισουντας υμας, και ουχ εξετε εχθρον. απεχου των σαρκικων και σωματικων επιθυμιων. εαν τις σοι δω ραπισμα εις την δεξιαν σιαγονα, στρεψον αυτω και την αλλην, και εση τελειος. εαν αγγαρευση σε τις μιλιον εν, υπαγε μετ αυτου δυο· εαν αρη τις το ιματιον σου, δος αυτω και τον χιτωνα· εαν λαβη τις απο σου το σον, μη απαιτει, ουδε γαρ δυνασαι. παντι τω αιτουντι σε διδου και μη απαιτει, πασι γαρ θελει διδοσθαι ο πατηρ εκ των ιδιων χαρισματων. μακαριος ο διδους κατα την εντολην, αθωος γαρ εστιν. ουαι τω λαμβανοντι, ει μεν γαρ χρειαν εχων λαμβανει τις, αθωος εσται, ο δε μη χρειαν εχων δωσει δικην, ινατι ελαβε και εις τι, εν συνοχη δε γενομενος εξετασθησεται περι ων επραξε, και ουκ εξελευσεται εκειθεν μεχρις ου αποδω τον εσχατον κοδραντην. αλλα και περι τουτου δε ειρηται· Ιδρωσατω η ελεημοσυνη σου εις τας χειρας σου, μεχρις αν γνως τινι δως. Δευτερα δε εντολη της διδαχης....

And of these words the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you and pray on behalf of your enemies, and fast on behalf of those who persecute you, for what kind of grace is it if you love those who love you? Do not even the gentiles do the same? But you, love those who hate you, and you will not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and bodily desires. If someone should give you a slap upon the right cheek, turn to him also the other, and you will be perfect. If someone should press you for one mile, go with him two. If someone should take your tunic, give him also your cloak. If someone should take what is yours away from you, do not take it away, for you are unable. To him who asks you give and do not take back, for the father wishes that to all should be given from your own graces. Blessed is he who gives according to the commandment, for he is blameless. Woe to him who receives, for if someone receives who has need, he is blameless, but if he does not have need he shall give justice, why he received and for what, and coming in imprisonment he shall be examined concerning the things that he did, and shall not go out from there until he gives back the last quadrans. But also about this it has been said: Let your mercy-gift sweat into your hands until you know to whom to give. But the second command of this teaching [is]....

Didache 8.2 (confer Matthew 6.9-13 = Luke 11.1-4):

Μηδε προσευχεσθε ως οι υποκριται, αλλ ως εκελευσεν ο κυριος εν τω ευαγγελιω αυτου, ουτω προσευχεσθε· Πατηρ ημων ο εν τω ουρανω, αγιασθητω το ονομα σου· ελθετω η βασιλεια σου· γενηθητω το θελημα σου ως εν ουρανω και επι γης· τον αρτον ημων τον επιουσιον δος ημιν σημερον, και αφες ημιν την οφειλην ημων, ως και ημεις αφιεμεν τοις οφειλειταις ημων· και μη εισενεγκης ημας εις πειρασμον, αλλα ρυσαι ημας απο του πονηρου, οτι σου εστιν η δυναμις και η δοξα εις τους αιωνας.

Do not pray as the hypocrites, but, as the Lord commanded in his gospel, thus pray: Our father who is in heaven, let your name be sanctified. May your kingdom come. May your will happen as in heaven even upon the earth. Our needed bread give us today, and forgive us what we owe, as we also forgive those who owe us. And do not bring us into testing, but rescue us from the evil one, since yours is the power and the glory unto the ages.

Didache 9.5 (confer Matthew 7.6):

Μηδεις δε φαγετω μηδε πιετω απο της ευαριστιας υμων αλλ οι βαπτισθεντες εις ονομα κυριου, και γαρ περι τουτου ειρηκεν ο κυριος· Μη δωτε το αγιον τοις κυσι.

But let no one eat or drink from your eucharist but those baptized into the name of the Lord, for about this also spoke the Lord: Do not give what is sanctified to the dogs.

Didache 11.3-8 (confer Matthew 12.32 = Mark 3.28-29 = Luke 12.10):

Περι δε των αποστολων και προφητων, κατα το δογμα του ευαγγελιου ουτω ποιησατε. πας δε αποστολος ερχομενος προς υμας δεχθητω ως κυριος· ου μενει ει μη ημεραν μιαν, εαν δε η χρεια, και την αλλην, τρεις δε εαν μεινη, ψευδοπροφητης εστιν. εξερχομενος δε ο αποστολος μηδεν λαμβανετω ει μη αρτον εως ου αυλισθη, εαν δε αργυριον αιτη, ψευδοπροφητης εστι. και παντα προφητην λαλουντα εν πνευματι ου πειρασετε ουδε διακρινειτε, πασα γαρ αμαρτια αφεθησεται, αυτη δε η αμαρτια ουκ αφεθησεται. ου πας δε ο λαλων εν πνευματι προφητης εστιν, αλλ εαν εχη τους τροπους κυριου. απο ουν των τροπων γνωσθησεται ο ψευδοπροφητης και ο προφητης.

But concerning the apostles and prophets, according to the dogma of the gospel, do thus. And every apostle who comes to you, let him be received as the Lord. He shall not remain except one day, but if there is a need, also another, but if he remains three, he is a false prophet. And when the apostle goes out let him take nothing except bread until he should lodge. But if he asks for silver, he is a false prophet. And neither test nor judge every prophet who speaks in the spirit, for every sin shall be forgiven, but this sin shall not be forgiven. But not everyone who speaks in the spirit is a prophet, but if he should have the ways of the Lord. From the ways, therefore, shall the false prophet be known, and the prophet.

On the ways of the Lord, John Dominic Crossan writes on page 404 of The Birth of Christianity:

I ask whether remembering his sayings or imitating his life is the primary mode of continuity from the historical Jesus to those who walked around with him and remained around after him. The Didache, as we have just seen, did not even cite his sayings as his. But it used as a criterion of authenticity the ways (tropoi) rather than the words (logoi) of the Lord. Continuity was in mimetics rather than in mnemonics, in imitating life rather than in remembering words.

John Dominic Crossan, The Birth of Christianity, page 400, on the itinerants and the householders:

I do not know to what extent they and their hearers considered any saying, whether attributed to Jesus or not, as simple verbal articulation of actual practice. Jesus "said" this by "doing" that.

Didache 13.2 (confer Matthew 10.10):

Ωσαυτως διδακαλος αληθινος εστιν αξιος και αυτος ωσπερ ο εργατης της τροφης αυτου.

Likewise a true teacher is worthy, even he himself just as the worker, of his food.

Didache 15.3-4:

Ελεγχετε δε αλληλους μη εν οργη, αλλ εν ειρηνη, ως εχετε εν τω ευαγγελιω, και παντι αστοχουντι κατα του ετερου μηδεις λαλειτω μηδε παρ υμων ακουετω εως ου μετανοηση. τας δε ευχας υμων και τας ελεημοσυνας και πασας τας πραξεις ουτω ποιησατε ως εχετε εν τω ευαγγελιω του κυριου ημων.

And reprove one another, not in wrath, but in peace, as you have it in the gospel, and let no one speak to every man who misses the mark against the other man, nor let him hear from you until he repents. But your prayers and your mercy-gifts and all your deeds so do as you have it in the gospel of our Lord.

Didache 16.1-8, the apocalypse of the Didache (confer the Olivet discourse):

Γρηγορειτε υπερ της ζωης υμων· οι λυχνοι υμων μη σβεσθητωσαν, και αι οσφυες υμων μη εκλυεσθωσαν, αλλα γινεσθε ετοιμοι, ου γαρ οιδατε την ωραν εν η ο κυριος ημων ερχεται. πυκνως δε συναχθησεσθε ζητουντες τα ανηκοντα ταις ψυχαις υμων, ου γαρ ωφελησει υμας ο πας χρονος της πιστεως υμων εαν μη εν τω εσχατω καιρω τελειωθητε. εν γαρ ταις εσχαταις ημεραις πληθυνθησονται οι ψευδοπροφηται και οι φθορεις, και στραφησονται τα προβατα εις λυκους, και η αγαπη στραφησεται εις μισος. αυξανουσης γαρ της ανομιας μισησουσιν αλληλους και παραδωσουσι, και τοτε φανησεται ο κοσμοπλανης ως υιος θεου και ποιησει σημεια και τερατα, και η γη παραδοθησεται εις χειρας αυτου, και ποιησει αθεμιτα, α ουδεποτε γεγονεν εξ αιωνος. τοτε ηξει η κτισις των ανθρωπων εις την πυρωσιν της δοκιμασιας, και σκανδαλισθησονται πολλοι και απολουνται, οι δε υπομειναντες εν τη πιστει αυτων σωθησονται υπ αυτου του καταθεματος. και τοτε φανησεται τα σημεια της αληθειας, πρωτον σημειον εκπετασεως εν ουρανω, ειτα σημειον φωνης σαλπιγγος, και το τριτον αναστασις νεκρων, ου παντων δε, αλλ ως ερρεθη· Ηξει ο κυριος και παντες οι αγιοι μετ αυτου. τοτε οψεται ο κοσμος τον κυριον ερχομενον επανω των νεφελων του ουρανου.

Be awake for the sake of your life. Let not your lamps be quenched, and your loins ungirded, but be ready, for you do not know the hour in which our Lord will come. But come together often, seeking the things that are fitting for your souls, for the whole time of your faith will not profit you unless you are perfected in the last season. For in the last days the false prophets and corrupters will be multiplied, and the sheep will be changed into wolves, and love will be changed into hatred. For when lawlessness is increased they will hate one another and deliver one another up, and then shall appear the deceiver of the world as a son of God, and he will do signs and wonders, and the earth will be delivered into his hands, and he will do iniquities which have not yet happened from the age. Then the creation of men will come into the fire of testing, and many will be scandalized and will perish, but those who endure in their faith shall be saved by the curse itself. And then shall appear the signs of the truth, first the sign of a stretching out in heaven, then the sign of the voice of a trumpet, and the third the resurrection of the dead, but not of all, but as it is said: The Lord shall come and all his saints with him. Then the world will see the Lord coming upon the clouds of heaven.

In the epistle of Barnabas.

Koester does not have this category.

Barnabas 4.14b (confer Matthew 22.14):

...ως γεγραπται· Πολλοι κλητοι, ολιγοι δε εκλεκτοι ευρεθωμεν.

...as it is written: Many are called, but few of us are found to be elect.

Barnabas 5.9 (confer Matthew 9.13b = Mark 2.17b = Luke 5.32).

Οτε δε τους ιδιους αποστολους τους μελλοντας κηρυσσειν το ευαγγελιον αυτου εξελεξατο, οντας υπερ πασαν αμαρτιαν ανομωτερους ινα δειξη οτι ουκ ηλθεν καλεσαι δικαιους αλλα αμαρτωλους, τοτι εφανερωσεν εαυτον ειναι υιον θεου.

But when he elected his own apostles, who were about to preach his gospel but were lawless beyond all sin, so that he might show that he came not to call the just but sinners, then he made himself apparant, that he was the son of God.

Barnabas 12.11b (confer Matthew 22.45 = Mark 12.37 = Luke 20.44).

Ιδε πως Δαυιδ λεγει αυτον κυριον, και υιον ου λεγει.

Behold how David says that he is Lord, and does not say that he is a son.

In the Shepherd of Hermas.

Koester does not have this category.

Mandate 4.1.4-10 (confer Matthew 19.3-9 = Mark 10.2-12; Matthew 5.32 = Luke 16.18):

Λεγω αυτω· Κυριε, επιτρεψον μοι ολιγα ερωτησαι σε. Λεγε, φησιν. Κυριε, φημι, ει γυναικα εχη τις πιστην εν κυριω και ταυτην ευρη εν μοιχεια τινι, αρα αματανει ο ανηρ συνζων μετ αυτης; Αχρι της αγονοις, φησιν, ουχ αμαρτανει, εαν δε γνω ο ανηρ την αμαρτιαν αυτης και μη μετανοηση η γυνη, αλλ επιμενη τη πορνεια αυτης και συνζη ο ανηρ μετ αυτης, ενοχος γινεται της αμαρτιας αυτης και κοινωνος της μοιχειας αυτης. Τι ουν, φημι, κυριε, ποιηση ο ανηρ, εαν επιμεινη τω παθει τουτω η γυνη; Απολυσατω, φησιν, αυτην και ο ανηρ εφ εαυτω μενετω. εαν δε απολυσας την γυναικα ετεραν γαμηση, και αυτος μοιχαται. Εαν ουν, φημι, κυριε, μετα το απολυθηναι την γυναικα μετανοηση η γυνη και θεληση επι τον εαυτης ανδρα υποστρεψαι, ου παραδεχθησεται; Και μην, φησιν, εαν μη παραδεξηται αυτην ο ανη, αμαρτανει και μεγαλην αμαρτιαν εαυτω επιπαται, αλλα δει παραδεχθηναι τον ημαρτηκοτα και μετανοουντα, μη επι πολυ δε, τοις γαρ δουλοις του θεου μετανοια εστιν μια. δια την μετανοιαν ουν ου οφειλει γαμειν ο ανηρ. αυτη η πραξις επι γυναικι και ανδρι κειται. ου μονον, φησιν, μοιχεια εστιν εαν τις την σαρκα αυτου μιανη, αλλα και ος αν τα ομοιωματα ποιη τοις εθνεσιν μοιχαται. ωστε και εν τοις τοιουτοις εργοις εαν εμμενη τις και μη μετανοη, απεχου απ αυτου και μη συνζηθι αυτω ει δε μη, και συ μετοχος ει της αμαρτιας αυτου. δια τουτο προσεταγη υμιν εφ εαυτοις μενειν, ειτε ανηρ ειτε γυνη, δυνατια γαρ ε τοις τοιουτοις μετανοια ειναι.

I say to him: Lord, permit me to ask a few more things of you. Speak, he says. Lord, I say, if a certain man has a faithful wife in the Lord, and he finds her in a certain act of adultery, does the man sin living together with her? While he is ignorant, he says, he does not sin, but if the man knows her sin and the wife does not repent, but remains in her fornication and the man lives together with her, he is accountable for her sin and is a partaker of her adultery. What then, lord, I say, shall the man do, if the wife remains in this suffering? Let him release her, he says, and the man remain by himself, but if having released the wife he should marry another, he likewise commits adultery. If then, lord, I say, the wife after being released should repent, and the wife wish to return to her husband, shall she not be received back? Indeed, he says, if the husband does not receive her back he sins and brings great sin upon himself, but the one who has sinned and repented must be received, but not many times, for there is one repentance for the servants of God. For the sake of repentance therefore the husband ought not to marry. This practice lies for the wife and the husband. Not only, he says, is it adultery if someone should pollute his flesh, but also whoever does things like the gentiles do commits adultery, so that also if someone remains in works such as these and does not repent, depart from him and do not live together with him, or else you too are a sharer of his sin. On account of this you were commanded to remain by yourself, whether husband or wife, for from such cases repentance is able to be.

Similitude 5.4.3 (confer Matthew 13.11 = Mark 4.11 = Luke 8.10a; Matthew 7.7 = Luke 11.9):

Ο δε παλιν απεκριθη μοι λεγων· Ος αν, φησι, δουλος η του θεου και εχη τον κυριον εαυτου εν τη καρδια αιτειαι παρ αυτου συνεσιν και λαμβανει και πασαν παραβολην επιλυει, και γνωστα αυτω γινονται τα ρηματα του κυριου τα λεγομενα δια παραβολων· οσοι δε βληχροι εισι και αργοι προς την εντευξιν, εκεινοι δισταζουσιν αιτεισθαι παρα του κυριου.

And he again answered me saying: Whoever, he says, is a servant of God and holds his own Lord in his heart asks for understanding from him, and receives it, and explains every parable, and the words of the Lord which are spoken through parables are made known to him. But as many as are lazy and idle in petition, those hesitate to ask from the Lord.

Similitude 9.20.1b-3 (confer Matthew 13.22 = Mark 4.18-19 = Luke 8.14; Matthew 19.23 = Mark 10.23 = Luke 18.24):

Οι μεν τριβολοι εισιν οι πλουσιοι, αι δε ακανθαι οι εν ταις πραγματειαις ταις ποικιλαις και ποικιλαις πραγματειαις εμπεφυρμενοι, ου κολλωνται τοις δουλοις του θεου, αλλ αποπλανωνται πνιγομενοι υπο των πραξεων αυτων, οι δε πλουσιοι δυσκολως κολλωνται τοις δουλοις του θεου, φοβουμενοι μη τι αιτισθωσιν υπ αυτων· οι τοιουτοι ουν δυσκολως εισελευσονται εις την βασιλειαν του θεου. ωσπερ γαρ εν τριβολοις γυμνοις ποσι περιπατειν δυσκολον εστιν, ουτω και τοις τοιουτοις δυσκολον εστιν εις την βασιλειαν του θεου εισελθειν.

The briars are the rich, and the thorns are those who have been lumped in with pragmatic matters, not cleaving to the servants of God, but wandering astray, being choked by their practical matters, and the rich with difficulty cleave to the servants of God, fearing lest they should be asked for something by them. Such men therefore shall with difficulty go into the kingdom of God. For just as it is difficult to walk about on briars with bare feet, so also it is difficult for such men to go into the kingdom of God.

In the epistle of Polycarp.

Polycarp to the Philippians 2.3b:

...μνημονευοντες δε ων ειπεν ο κυριος διδασκων· Μη κρινετε ινα μη κριθητε. αφιετε, και αφεθησεται υμιν. ελεατε ινα ελεηθητε. ω μετρω μετρειτε, αντιμετρηθησεται υμιν, και οτι, Μακαριοι οι πτωχοι και οι διωκομενοι ενεκεν δικαιοσυνης, οτι αυτων εστιν η βασιλεια του θεου.

...but remembering what the Lord said teaching: Judge not that you might not be judged. Forgive, and it will be forgiven you. Show mercy that you might be shown mercy. With what measure you measure, it will be measured back out to you, and: Blessed are the poor and those who are persecuted for the sake of justice, since theirs is the kingdom of God.

Polycarp to the Philippians 7.2:

Διο απολιποντες την ματαιοτητα των πολλων και τας ψευδοδιδασκαλιας επι τον εξ αρχης ημιν παραδοθεντα λογον επιστρεψωμεν, νηφοντες προς τας ευχας και προσκαρτερουντες νηστειαις, δεησεσιν αιτουμενοι τον παντεποπτην θεον μη εισενεγκειν ημας εις πειρασμον, καθως ειπεν ο κυριος· Το μεν πνευμα προθυμον, η δε σαρξ ασθενης.

On this account, leaving behind the vanity and false teaching of many, let us return to the word which was delivered to us from the beginning, watching unto prayer and keeping up in fasting, asking in requests the all-seeing God not to lead us into temptation, as the Lord has said: The spirit is desirous, but the flesh is weak.