Josephus on the career and execution of Jesus.

The famed Testimonium Flavianum.


One of the ancient Jewish testimonia.

Also of interest, the connections between the Testimonium and other ancient texts. Peter Kirby has a very good online discussion of the key passage, as well as numerous links to relevant materials, on Early Christian Writings. There is also available online a brief but nice historical treatment by Alice Whealey in .pdf. I recommend going through the catalogue of citations compiled by David C. Hindley, which list includes a number of references to this passage.

Also relevant, the passage on John the baptist in Antiquities 18.5.2 §116-119.

The textus receptus.

The received text (textus receptus) of the Testimonium Flavianum proper. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.3.3 §63-64, on Jesus:

Γινεται δε 1aκατα τουτον1b τον χρονον Ιησους,2 σοφος ανηρ, ειγε ανδρα αυτον λεγειν χρη· ην γαρ παραδοξων εργων ποιητης, διδασκαλος ανθρωπων 3aτων ηδονη ταληθη δεχομενων,3b και πολλους μεν Ιουδαιους,4 πολλους δε και5 του Ελληνικου επηγαγετο· ο Χριστος ουτος ην. και αυτον ενδειξει 6aτων πρωτων ανδρων παρ ημιν6b σταυρω επιτετιμηκοτος Πιλατου ουκ επαυσαντο οι το πρωτον αγαπησαντες· εφανη γαρ αυτοις τριτην εχων7 ημεραν παλιν ζων, των θειων προφητων ταυτα τε και αλλα μυρια περι αυτου θαυμασια8 ειρηκοτων. 9aεις ετι τε9b νυν 10aτων Χριστιανων απο τουδε10b ωνομασμενον11 ουκ επελιπε το φυλον.

This is the Josephan text as presented in the Loeb edition of the Antiquities (volume XII, pages 48-50). For convenience this apparatus gives some of the variants as they appear in Eusebius, History of the Church 1.11.7b-8 (Loeb edition, volume 1, page 82), and ibidem, Demonstration of the Gospel 3.5 §124.

1 The Demonstration has κατ εκεινον.
2 Some manuscripts of the History have Ιησους τις.
3 The Demonstration has ταληθη σεβομενων.
4 The History has των Ιουδαιων; the Demonstration has του Ιουδαικου.
5 The History has και απο.
6 The Demonstration has των παρ ημιν αρχοντων.
7 The Demonstration lacks εχων.
8 The Demonstration lacks περι αυτου θαυμασια.
9 The Demonstration has οθεν εισετι.
10 The Demonstration has απο τουδε των Χριστιανων.
11 The Demonstration lacks ωνομασμενον, which if I understand correctly is a correction by Niese for ωνομασμενων in the first place.

And there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if indeed it is necessary to call him a man, for he was a doer of paradoxical works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure, and many Jews on the one hand and also many of the Greeks on the other he drew to himself. This man was the Christ. And when, on the accusation of some of the principal men among us, Pilate had condemned him to a cross, those who had first loved him did not cease to do so. For he appeared to them on the third day, living again, the divine prophets having related both these things and countless other marvels about him. And even till now the tribe of Christians, so named from this man, has not gone extinct.

Josephus, Antiquities, book 18, table of contents:

Ταδε ενεστιν εν τη ιη των Ιωσηπου ιστοριων της Ιουδαικης αρχαιολογια 62;·

These are the things contained in the eighteenth [volume] of the histories of the Jewish antiquities by Josephus:

  1. Ως Κυρινιος υπο Καισαρος επεμφθη τιμητης Συριας και Ιουδαιας και αποδωσομενο 62; την Αρχελαου ουσιαν.
    How Quirinius was sent by Caesar as an assessor of Syria and Judea and custodian of the estate of Archelaus.
  2. Ως Κωπωνιος εκ του ιππικου ταγματος επεμφθη επαρχος Ιουδαιας.
    How Coponius, from the order of the knights, was sent as prefect of Judea.
  3. Ως Ιουδας ο Γαλιλαιος επεισεν το πληθος μη απογραψασθα 53; τας ουσιας, μεχρις Ιωζαρος ο αρχιερευς επεισεν αυτους μαλλον υπακουσαι Ρωμαιοις.
    How Judas the Galilean persuaded the multitude not to register their estates, until Joazar the high priest persuaded them rather to submit to the Romans.
  4. Τινες αιρεσεις και οποσαι παρα Ιουδαιοις φιλοσοφων και τινες οι νομοι.
    Certain sects, even as many of the philosophers among the Jews, and certain laws.
  5. Ως Ηρωδης και Φιλιππος οι τετραρχαι πολεις εκτισαν εις τιμην Καισαρος.
    How Herod and Philip the tetrarchs created cities for the honor of Caesar.
  6. Ως Σαμαρεις οστα νεκρων διαρριψαντε 62; εις το ιερον τον λαον επτα ημερας εμιαναν.
    How Samaritans threw the bones of dead men into the temple and defiled the people for seven days.
  7. Ως Σαλωμη η αδελφη Ηρωδου τελευτησασα τα αυτης κατελιπεν Ιουλια τη του Καισαρος γαμετη.
    How Salome the sister of Herod died and left her possessions to Julia the wife of Caesar.
  8. Ως Ποντιος Πιλατος ηθελησε κρυφα εις Ιεροσολυμα εισενεγκαι προτομας Καισαρος, ο δε λαος ου κατεδεξατο στασιασας.
    How Pontius Pilate wished to bear busts of Caesar secretly into Jerusalem, and the people did not accept this, and rebelled.
  9. Τα συμβαντα Ιουδαιοις εν Ρωμη κατα τουτον τον καιρον υπο των Σαμαρεων.
    What happened to the Jews in Rome at this time under the Samaritans.
  10. Κατηγορια υπο Σαμαρεων Πιλατου επι Ουιτελλιου, και ως Ουιτελλιος ηναγκασεν αυτον αναβηναι εις Ρωμην λογον των πεπραγμενων αποδωσοντα.
    An accusation of Pilate by Samaritans in the time of Vitellius, and how Vitellius compelled him to go up to Rome to give account for what he had done.
  11. Πολεμος Ηρωδου του τετραρχου προς Αρεταν τον Αραβων βασιλεα και ηττα.
    The war and defeat of Herod the tetrarch against Aretas the king of the Arabs.
  12. Ως Τιβεριος Καισαρ εγραψεν Ουιτελλιω Αρταβανην μεν τον Παρθον πεισαι ομηρους αυτω πεμψαι, προς Αρεταν δε πολεμειν.
    How Tiberius Caesar wrote to Vitellius to persuade Artabanus the Parthian to send him hostages, and to make war against Aretas.
  13. Τελευτη Φιλιππου, και ως η τετραρχια αυτου επαρχια εγενετο.
    The death of Philip, and how his tetrarchy became a prefecture.
  14. Αποπλους Αγριππα εις Ρωμην, και ως κατηγορηθει 62; υπο του ιδιου απελευθερου εδεθη· ον τροπον ελυθη υπο Γαιου μετα την Τιβεριου τελευτην και εγενετο βασιλευς της Φιλιππου τετραρχιας.
    The sailing away of Agrippa to Rome, and how he was bound after having been accused by his own freedman; in what manner he was set free by Gaius upon the death of Tiberius and became king of the tetrarchy of Philip.
  15. Ως Ηρωδης αναβας εις Ρωμην εξωρισθη, και ως την τετραρχιαν αυτου εδωρησατο Γαιος Αγριππα.
    How Herod went up to Rome and was banished, and how Gaius gifted his tetrarchy to Agrippa.
  16. Στασις των εν Αλεξανδρεια Ιουδαιων και Ελληνων και πρεσβεια αφ εκατερων προς Γαιον.
    The strife of the Jews and Greeks in Alexandria and the embassy from each to Gaius.
  17. Κατηγορια Ιουδαιων υπο Απιωνος και των συμπρεσβεων επι τω μη εχειν Καισαρος ανδριαντα.
    Accusation of the Jews by Apion and of the fellow ambassadors for not having a statue of Caesar.
  18. Ως αγανακτησας Γαιος πεμπει Πετρωνιον ηγεμονα εις Συριαν πολεμησαι Ιουδαιους, εαν μη θελησωσιν εισδεξασθαι αυτου τον ανδριαντα.
    How Gaius became irritated and sends Petronius the leader of Syria to make war against the Jews, unless they wish to receive his statue.
  19. Την συμβασαν φθοραν τοις εν Βαβυλωνι Ιουδαιοις δι Ασιναιον και Ανιλαιον τους αδελφους.
    The destruction that happened to the Jews in Babylon on account of the brothers Asineus and Anileus.

Περιεχει η βιβλος χρονον ετων λβ.

The book encompasses a timespan of 32 years.

From Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 20.9.1 §200-203, on James the brother of the Lord (English translation based on that of Whiston):

Ατε δη ουν τοιουτος ων ο Ανανος, νομισας εχειν καιρον επιτηδειον δια το τεθναναι μεν Φηστον, Αλβινον δ ετι κατα την οδον υπαρχειν, καθιζει συνεδριον κριτων και παραγαγων εις αυτο τον αδελφον Ιησου του λεγομενου Χριστου, Ιακωβος ονομα αυτω, και τινας ετερους, ως παρανομησαντων κατηγοριαν ποιησαμενος, παρεδωκεν λευσθησομονους. οσοι δε εδοκουν επιεικεστατοι των κατα την πολιν ειναι και περι τους νομους ακριβεις βαρεως ηνεγκαν επι τουτω και πεμπουσιν προς τον βασιλεα κρυφα, παρακαλουντες αυτον επιστειλαι τω Ανανω μηκετι τοιαυτα πρασσειν· μηδε γαρ το πρωτον ορθως αυτον πεποιηκεναι. τινες δ αυτων και τον Αλβινον υπαντιαζουσιν απο της Αλεξανδρειας οδοιπορουντα και διδασκουσιν ως ουκ εξον ην Ανανω χωρις της εκεινου γνωμης καθισαι συνεδριον. Αλβινος δε πεισθεις τοις λεγομενοις γραφει μετ οργης τω Ανανω ληψεσθαι παρ αυτου δικας απειλων. και ο βασιλευς Αγριππας δια τουτο την αρχιερωσυνην αφελομενος αυτον αρξαντος μηνας τρεις Ιησουν τον του Δαμναιου κατεστησεν.

When, therefore, Ananus was of this disposition, he thought he had now a proper opportunity. Festus was now dead, and Albinus was upon the road; so he assembled the Sanhedrin of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others. And, when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned. But as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king, desiring him to send to Ananus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified; nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Ananus to assemble a Sanhedrin without his consent. Whereupon Albinus complied with what they said, and wrote in anger to Ananus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done; on which king Agrippa took the high priesthood from him when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus, the son of Damneus, high priest.

Origen.

Early century III.

Origen, On Matthew 10.17:

Ιακωβος δε εστιν ουτος ον λεγει Παυλος ιδειν εν τη προς Γαλατας επιστολη, ειπων Ετερον δε των αποστολων ουκ ειδον ει μη Ιακωβον τον αδελφον του κυριου. επι τοσουτον δε διελεμψεν ουτος ο Ιακωβος εν τω λαω επι δικαιοσυνη ως Φλαβιον Ιωσηπον αναγραψαντα εν εικοσι βιβλιοις την Ιουδαικην αρχαιολογιαν, την αιτιαν παραστησαι βουλομενον του τα τοσαυτα πεπονθεναι τον λαον ως και τον ναον κατασκαφηναι, ειρηκεναι κατα μηνιν θεου ταυτα αυτοις απηντηκεναι δια τα εις Ιακωβον τον αδελφον Ιησου του λεγομενου Χριστου υπ αυτων τετολμημενα. και το θαυμαστον εστιν οτι, τον Ιησουν ημων ου καταδεξαμενος ειναι Χριστον, ουδεν ηττον Ιακωβω δικαιοσυνην εμαρτυρησε τοσαυτην. λεγει δε οτι και ο λαος ταυτα ενομιζε δια τον Ιακωβον πεπονθεναι. και Ιουδας εγραψεν επιστολην ολιγοστιχον μεν, πεπληρωμενην δε των της ουρανιου χαριτος ερρωμενων λογων, οστις εν τω προοιμιω ειρηκεν· Ιουδας Ιησου Χριστου δουλος, αδελφος δε Ιακωβου. περι δε Ιωσηφ και Σιμονος ημεις ουδεν ιστορησαμεν. .... Μηποτε δε εμφαινεται δια τουτων επαπορησις περι του μηδε ανθρωπον ειναι, αλλα τι θειοτερον τον Ιησουν, υιον μεν οντα, ως υπελαμβανον, Ιωσηφ και Μαριας, αδελφον δε τεσσαρων, ουδεν δ ηττον και ετερων θηλειων, και μηδεν εχοντα τινι των εκ γενους παραπλησιον, μηδ εκ παιδευσεως και διδασκαλιας επι τοσουτον σοφιας και δυναμεως εληλακοτα.

But James is this one whom Paul says that he saw in the epistle to the Galatians, saying: But I did not see any of the other apostles except James the brother of the Lord. And in such a way among the people did this James shine for his justice that Flavius Josephus, who wrote the Judaic Antiquities in twenty books, wishing to demonstrate the cause why the people suffered such great things that even the temple was razed down, said that these things came to pass against them in accordance with the ire of God on account of the things which were dared by them against James the brother of Jesus who is called Christ. And the wondrous thing is that, although he did not accept our Jesus to be Christ, he yet testified that the justice of James was not at all small; and he says that even the people supposed they had suffered these things on account of James. And Jude wrote an epistle short in lines but full of the healthy words of the grace of heaven, he who in the preface has said: Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James. But concerning Joseph and Simon we have nothing to relate. .... And perhaps by these things a new doubt is indicated concerning that Jesus was not a man, but rather something more divine, since he was the son, as they received, of Joseph and Mary, and was the brother of four, and no less of the others, the females, and yet had nothing like any one of those from his family, nor had come from education and teaching unto such wisdom and power.

Origen, Against Celsus 1.47:

Εν γαρ τω οκτωκαιδεκατω της Ιουδαικης αρχαιολογιας ο Ιωσηπος μαρτυρει τω Ιωαννη ως βαπτιστη γεγενημενω και καθαρσιον τοις βαπτισαμενοις επαγγελλομενω. ο δ αυτος, καιτοι γε απιστων τω Ιησου ως Χριστω, ζητων την αιτιαν της των Ιεροσολυμων πτωσεως και της του ναου καθαιρεσεως, δεον αυτον ειπειν οτι η κατα του Ιησου επιβουλη τουτων αιτια γεγονε τω λαω, επει απεκτειναν τον προφητευομενον Χριστον, ο δε και ωσπερ ακων ου μακραν της αληθειας γενομενος φησι ταυτα συμβεβηκεναι τοις Ιουδαιοις κατ εκδικησιν Ιακωβου του δικαιου, ος ην αδελφος Ιησου του λεγομενου Χριστου, επειδηπερ δικαιοτατον αυτον οντα απεκτειναν. τον δε Ιακωβον τουτον ο Ιησου γνησιος μαθητης Παυλος φησιν εωρακεναι ως αδελφον του κυριου, ου τοσουτον δια το προς αιματος συγγενες η την κοινην αυτων ανατροφην οσον δια το ηθος και τον λογον. ειπερ ουν δια Ιακωβον λεγει συμβεβηκεναι τοις Ιουδαιοις τα κατα την ερημωσιν της Ιερουσαλημ, πως ουχι ευλογωτερον δια Ιησουν τον Χριστον τουτο φασκειν γεγονεναι; ου της θειοτητος μαρτυρες αι τοσαυται των μεταβαλοντων απο της χυσεως των κακων εκκλησιαι και ηρτημενων του δημιουργου και παντ αναφεροντων επι την προς εκεινον αρεσκειαν.

For in the eighteenth volume of the Judaic Antiquities Josephus testifies to John as having been a baptist and promised cleansing to those who were baptized. But he himself, though not believing in Jesus as Christ, in seeking the cause of the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the temple, whereas he ought to have said that the conspiracy against Jesus was the cause of these things happening to the people, since they killed the prophecied Christ, even says, being unwillingly not far from the truth, that these things befell the Jews as vengeance for James the just, who was a brother of Jesus who is called Christ, since they killed him who was mos just. Paul, a genuine disciple of Jesus, says that he saw this James as a brother of the Lord, not so much on account of their relationship by blood or of their common upbringing as on account of his ethics and speech. If, therefore, he says that the things surrounding the desolation of Jerusalem befell the Jews on account of James, how is it not more reasonable to say that it happened on account of Jesus the Christ? Of his divinity so many churches, made up of those who have changed over from a flood of evils and have joined themselves to the demiurge, and who refer everything to pleasure toward him.

Origen, Against Celsus 2.13:

Τουτο γαρ ηρξατο μεν ετι Νερωνος βασιλευοντος, παρετεινε δε εως της Ουεσπασιανου ηγεμονιας, ου ο υιος Τιτος καθειλε την Ιερουσαλημ, ως μεν Ιωσηπος γραφει, δια Ιακωβον τον δικαιον, τον αδελφον Ιησου του λεγομενου Χριστου, ως δε η αληθεια παριστησι, δια Ιησουν τον Χριστον του θεου.

For this [siege] began while Nero was still being king, and it lasted until the leadership of Vespasian, whose son Titus destroyed Jerusalem, as Josephus writes, on account of James the just, the brother of Jesus who was called Christ, but, as the truth demonstrates, [actually] on account of Jesus the Christ of God.

Eusebius.

Early century IV.

Eusebius, History of the Church 1.11.7-8 (Latin from Rufinus):

Ταυτα περι του Ιωαννου διελθων, και του σωτηρος ημων κατα την αυτην του συγγραμματος ιστοριαν ωδε πως μεμνηται·

Hactenus de Iohanne. sed et de salvatore domino in eisdem historiarum suarum libris idem Ioseppus ita scribit:

After going through these things concerning John, [Josephus] also makes mention of our savior in the same work* as follows:

* Id est, according to 1.11.4, book 18 of the Antiquities.

Γινεται δε κατα τουτον τον χρονον Ιησους, σοφος ανηρ, ειγε ανδρα αυτον λεγειν χρη· ην γαρ παραδοξων εργων ποιητης, διδασκαλος ανθρωπων των ηδονη ταληθη δεχομενων, και πολλους μεν των Ιουδαιων, πολλους δε και απο του Ελληνικου επηγαγετο· ο Χριστος ουτος ην. και αυτον ενδειξει των πρωτων ανδρων παρ ημιν σταυρω επιτετιμηκοτος Πιλατου ουκ επαυσαντο οι το πρωτον αγαπησαντες· εφανη γαρ αυτοις τριτην εχων ημεραν παλιν ζων, των θειων προφητων ταυτα τε και αλλα μυρια περι αυτου θαυμασια ειρηκοτων. εις ετι τε νυν των Χριστιανων απο τουδε ωνομασμενον ουκ επελιπε το φυλον.

Fuit autem iisdem temporibus Iesus, sapiens vir, si tamen virum eum nominare fas est; erat enim mirabilium operum effector doctorque hominum eorum qui libenter quae vera sunt audiunt, et multos quidem Iudaeorum, multos etiam ex gentilibus sibi adiunxit; Christus hic erat. hunc accusatione primorum nostrae gentis virorum, cum Pilatus in crucem agendum esse decrevisset, non deseruerunt hi qui ab initio eum dilexerant; apparuit enim eis tertio die iterum vivus, secundum quod divinitus inspirati prophetae vel haec vel alia de eo innumera miracula futura esse praedixerant. sed et in hodiernum diem Christianorum, qui ab ipso nuncupati sunt, et nomen perseverat et genus.

And there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if indeed it is necessary to call him a man, for he was a doer of paradoxical works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure, and many of the Jews on the one hand and also many from the Greeks on the other he drew to himself. This man was the Christ. And when, on the accusation of some of the principal men among us, Pilate had condemned him to a cross, those who had first loved him did not cease to do so. For he appeared to them on the third day, living again, the divine prophets having related both these things and countless other marvels about him. And even till now the tribe of Christians, so named from this man, has not gone extinct.

Eusebius also gives a version of the Testimonium in Demonstration of the Gospel 3.5 §124. Refer to the apparatus for the textus receptus.

Eusebius, History of the Church 2.1.3-6:

Κλημης εν εκτω των υποτυπωσεων γραφων ωδε παριστησιν· Πετρον γαρ φησιν και Ιακωβον και Ιωαννην μετα την αναληψιν του σωτηρος, ως αν και υπο του σωτηρος προτετιμημενους, μη επιδικαζεσθαι δοξης, αλλα Ιακωβον τον δικαιον επισκοπον των Ιεροσολυμων ελεσθαι.

But Clement in the sixth book of his Hypotyposeis writes as follows: For they say that Peter and James and John after the ascension of the savior, as if also preferred by the Lord, did not strive for glory, but rather elected James the just to be bishop of Jerusalem.

Ο δε αυτος εν εβδομω της αυτης υποθεσεως ετι και ταυτα περι αυτου φησιν· Ιακωβω τω δικαιω και Ιωαννη και Πετρω μετα την αναστασιν παρεδωκεν την γνωσιν ο κυριος, ουτοι τοις λοιποις αποστολοις παρεδωκαν, οι δε λοιποι αποστολοι τοις εβδομηκοντα, ων εις ην και Βαρναβας.

And the same [Clement] in the seventh book of the same work says also these things concerning him: The Lord after the resurrection delivered knowledge to James the just and to John and to Peter, and they delivered it to the rest of the apostles, and the rest of the apostles to the seventy, of whom Barnabas was one.

Δυο δε γεγονασιν Ιακωβοι, εις ο δικαιος, ο κατα του πτερυγιου βληθεις και υπο γναφεως ξυλω πληγεις εις θανατον, ετερος δε ο καρατομηθεις.

But there were two Jameses, one being the just one, who was cast down from the pinnacle and was beaten unto death with a club by a fuller, and another who was beheaded.

Αυτου δη του δικαιου και ο Παυλος μνημονευει γραφων· Ετερον δε των αποστολων ουκ ειδον, ει μη Ιακωβον τον αδελφον του κυριου.

Paul indeed makes mention of the same just one, writing: But I did not see any other of the apostles except James the brother of the Lord.

Eusebius, History of the Church 2.23.19-25:

Ταυτα δια πλατους συνωδα γε τοι τω Κλημεντι και ο Ηγησιππος. ουτω δε αρα θαυμασιος τις ην και παρα τοις αλλοις απασιν επι δικαιοσυνη βεβοητο ο Ιακωβος ως και τους Ιουδαιων εμφρονας δοξαζειν ταυτην ειναι την αιτιαν της παραχρημα μετα το μαρτυριον αυτου πολιορκιας της Ιερουσαλημ, ην δι ουδεν ετερον αυτοις συμβηναι η δια το κατ αυτου τολμηθεν αγος.

These things Hegesippus at any rate also relates at length along with Clement. And James was so marvelous a one, and so acclaimed among all the rest for his justice, that the sensible ones of the Jews opined that this was the cause of the siege of Jerusalem, which happened immediately after his martyrdom for no other reason than their daring act against him.

Αμελει γε τοι ο Ιωσηπος ουκ απωκνησεν και τουτ εγγραφως επιμαρτυρασθαι δι ων φησιν λεξεων· Ταυτα δε συμβεβηκεν Ιουδαιοις κατ εκδικησιν Ιακωβου του δικαιου, ος ην αδελφος Ιησου του λεγομενου Χριστου, επειδηπερ δικαιοτατον αυτον οντα οι Ιουδαιοι απεκτειναν.

Josephus at any rate did not hesitate to testify this also through his writings, in which he says: But these things happened to the Jews as vengeance for James the just, who was the brother of Jesus who is called Christ. For the Jews killed him even though he was a most just man.

Ο δ αυτος και τον θανατον αυτου εν εικοστω της αρχαιολογιας δηλοι δια τουτων·

And the same writer records his death also in the twentieth book of the Antiquities through these [words]:

Πεμπει δε Καισαρ Αλβινον εις την Ιουδαιαν επαρχον, Φηστου την τελευτην πυθομενος. ο δε νεωτερος Ανανος, ον την αρχιερωσυνην ειπαμεν παρειληφεναι, θρασυς ην τον τροπον και τολμητης διαφεροντως, αιρεσιν δε μετηει την Σαδδουκαιων, οιπερ εισι περι τας κρισεις ωμοι παρα παντας τους Ιουδαιους, καθως ηδη δεδηλωκαμεν.

And when Caesar heard of the death of Festus he sent Albinus into Judea as procurator. But the younger Ananus, who we have said had received the high priesthood, was bold in his ways and quite daring, and he followed the sect of the Sadducees, who are cruel in their judgments beyond all the Jews, just as we have already explained.

Ατε δη ουν τοιουτος ων ο Ανανος, νομισας εχειν καιρον επιτηδειον δια το τεθναναι μεν Φηστον, Αλβινον δ ετι κατα την οδον υπαρχειν, καθιζει συνεδριον κριτων και παραγαγων εις αυτο τον αδελφον Ιησου του Χριστου λεγομενου, Ιακωβος ονομα αυτω, και τινας ετερους, ως παρανομησαντων κατηγοριαν ποιησαμενος, παρεδωκεν λευσθησομονους.

When, therefore, Ananus was of this disposition, he thought he had now a proper opportunity. Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the Sanhedrin of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others. And, when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned.

Οσοι δε εδοκουν επιεικεστατοι των κατα την πολιν ειναι και τα περι τους νομους ακριβεις βαρεως ηνεγκαν επι τουτω και πεμπουσιν προς τον βασιλεα κρυφα, παρακαλουντες αυτον επιστειλαι τω Ανανω μηκετι τοιαυτα πρασσειν· μηδε γαρ το πρωτον ορθως αυτον πεποιηκεναι. τινες δ αυτων και τον Αλβινον υπαντιαζουσιν απο της Αλεξανδρειας οδοιπορουντα και διδασκουσιν ως ουκ εξον ην Ανανω χωρις αυτου γνωμης καθισαι συνεδριον.

But as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king, desiring him to send to Ananus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified; nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Ananus to assemble a Sanhedrin without his consent.

Αλβινος δε πεισθεις τοις λεγομενοις γραφει μετ οργης τω Ανανω ληψεσθαι παρ αυτου δικας απειλων. και ο βασιλευς Αγριππας δια τουτο την αρχιερωσυνην αφελομενος αυτον αρξαντος μηνας τρεις Ιησουν τον του Δαμναιου κατεστησεν.

Whereupon Albinus complied with what they said, and wrote in anger to Ananus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done; on which king Agrippa took the high priesthood from him when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus, the son of Damneus, high priest.

Τοιαυτα και τα κατα Ιακωβον, ου η πρωτη των ονομαζομενων καθολικων επιστολων ειναι λεγεται.

Such are the things about James, whose is said to be the first of what are called the catholic epistles.

Ιστεον δε ως νοθευεται μεν, ου πολλοι γουν των παλαιων αυτης εμνημονευσαν, ως ουδε της λεγομενης Ιουδα, μιας και αυτης ουσης των επτα λεγομενων καθολικων· ομως δ ισμεν και ταυτας μετα των λοιπων εν πλεισταις δεδημοσιευμενας εκκλησιαις.

It is to be observed that it is disputed, as not many at least of the ancients made mention of it, as also is that called of Jude, it itself also being one of the seven called catholic. But we know nevertheless that these also have been used publicly in most churches with the rest.

Pseudo-Hegesippus (or Ambrose).

Circa 370. Not to be confused with the real Hegesippus from about two centuries earlier.

From pseudo-Hegesippus (or pseudo-Ambrose), On the Downfall of Jerusalem (de excidio Ierusalem) 2.12 (refer also to Marian Hillar, Flavius Josephus and His Testimony Concerning the Historical Jesus):

Luebant enim scelerum suorum supplicia, qui postquam Iesum crucifixerant divinorum arbitrum, postea etiam discipulos eius persequebantur. plerique tamen Iudaeorum, gentilium plurimi, crediderunt in eum, cum praeceptis moralibus, operibus ultra humanam possibilitatem profluentibus invitarentur, quibus ne mors quidem eius vel fidei vel gratiae finem imposuit, immo etiam cumulavit devotionem. intulerunt itaque parricidales manus, atque auctorem vitae interficiendum ad Pilatum deduxere. reluctantem coeperunt perurgere iudicem, in quo tamen non excusabatur Pilatus, sed Iudaeorum amentia coacervabatur, quia nec ille adiudicare debuit quem reum minime deprehenderat, nec isti sacrilegium parricidio geminare, ut ab his qui ad redimendos et sanandos eos sese obtulerat obtruncaretur. de quo ipsi Iudaei quoque testantur, dicente Iosepho historiarum scriptore quod fuerat illo in tempore vir sapiens, si tamen oportet, inquit, virum dici mirabilium creatorem operum, qui apparuerit discipulis suis post triduum mortis suae vivens secundum prophetarum scripta, qui et haec et alia innumerabilia de eo plena miraculi prophetaverunt, ex quo coepit congregatio Christianorum et in omne hominum penetravit genus, nec ulla natio Romani orbis remansit quae cultus eius expers relinqueretur. si nobis non credunt Iudaei, vel suis credant. hoc dixit Iosephus, quem ipsi maximum putant, et tamen ita in eo ipso quod verum locutus est mente devius fuit ut nec sermonibus suis crederet. sed locutus est propter historiae fidem, quia fallere nefas putabat; non credidit propter duritiam cordis et perfidiae intentionem. non tamen veritati praeiudicat quia non credidit, sed plus addidit testimonio quia nec incredulus et invitus negavit. in quo Christi Iesu claruit aeterna potentia, quod eum etiam principes synagogae quem ad mortem comprehenderant deum fatebantur.

They were suffering, then, the punishments for their crimes, those who, after they had crucified Jesus the arbiter of divine things, afterward also were persecuting his disciples. Nevertheless, many Jews and even more gentiles believed in him, since they were invited by his moral precepts and works flowing beyond human possibility, whose faith and gratitude not even his death put an end to, but rather it mounted up their devotion all the more. And so they bore in murderous bands, and they led the author of life to Pilate to be killed. They began to press upon the reluctant judge, in which, however, Pilate is not excused, but the madness of the Jews is piled up, because he was obliged neither to judge him whom he had apprehended, though not guilty, nor to increase the sacrilege to this murder, that he who had offered himself to redeem and heal them should be killed by them. Of which the Jews themselves testify, since Josephus the writer of histories says that there was at that time a wise man, if it be appropriate, he says, to call the creator of miraculous works a man, who appeared living to his disciples three days after his death according to writings of the prophets, who prophesied both these and innumerable other things full of miracles concerning him, from whom the congregation of the Christians began and penetrated every race of men. nor does any nation of the Roman orb remain that is left without his cult. If the Jews do not believe us, they might believe their own. Josephus, whom they themselves regard as very great, said this, and nevertheless was so devious in mind with respect to him about whom he spoke the truth that he did not even believe his own speech. But he spoke on account of faithfulness to history, because he regarded it as wrong to deceive; he did not believe on account of his hardness of heart and perfidious intention. Nevertheless it does not prejudice truth that he did not believe, but rather it adds to the testimony because, though unbelieving and unwilling, he did not deny it. In this the eternal power of Christ Jesus shone forth, that even the principal men of the synagogue confessed him whom they had apprehended unto death to be God.

Dave Blocker has very kindly emailed me a translation, made by Wade Blocker, of this text by pseudo-Hegesippus in .pdf format.

Jerome.

Early century V.

From Jerome, On Famous Men 13:

Hic in octavo Antiquitatum libro manifestisime confitetur propter magnitudinem signorum Christum a Pharisaeis interfectum et Iohannem baptistam vere prophetam fuisse et propter interfectionem Iacobi apostoli Hierosolymam dirutam. scripsit autem de domino in hunc modum: Eodem tempore fuit Iesus, sapiens vir, si tamen virum eum oportet dicere. erat enim mirabilium patrator operum et doctor eorum qui libenter vera suscipiunt; plurimos quoque tam de Iudaeis quam de gentilibus habuit sectatores et credebatur esse Christus. cumque invidia nostrorum principum cruci eum Pilatus adfixisset, nihilominus qui primum dilexerant perseverarunt in fide.* apparuit enim eis tertia die vivens. multa et haec et alia mirabilia carminibus prophetarum de eo vaticinantibus, et usque hodie Christianorum gens ab hoc sortita vocabulum non defecit.

* Not all manuscripts have in fide.

This man in the eighth book of the Antiquities most manifestly confesses that Christ was slain by the Pharisees on account of the greatness of his signs, and that John the baptist was truly a prophet, and that Jerusalem was destroyed on account of the murder of James the apostle. He also wrote of the Lord in this manner: At that same time there was Jesus, a wise man, if indeed it be allowed to say that he was a man. For he was a worker of marvelous works and a teacher of those who freely receive true things. He also had very many followers, from the Jews as much as from the gentiles, and was believed to be Christ. When through the envy of our principal men Pilate had affixed him to a cross, nevertheless those who had first loved him perservered. For he appeared to them on the third day living. Many things, both these and other marvelous things, are in the songs of the prophets who made predictions about him, and to this very day the gens of Christians, having obtained the word* from him, has not passed away.

* Or name.

Compare the line et credebatur esse Christus (and he was believed to be the Christ) with the similar statement by Michael the Syrian that Jesus was thought to be the Christ.

Sozomen.

Middle of century V.

Sozomen, History of the Church 1.1.5-6:

Και Ιωσηπος δε ο Ματθιου ο ιερευς, ανηρ παρα τε Ιουδαιοις επιδοξοτατος γενομενος, ετι δε και παρα Ρωμαιοις, αξιοχρεως αν ειη μαρτυς της περι του Χριστου αληθειας. ανδρα μεν γαρ αυτον αποκαλειν οκνει, ως παραδοξων εργων ποιητην και διδασκαλον λογων αληθων, Χριστον δε περιφανως ονομαζει· και τω σταυρω καταδικασθηναι και τριταιον ζωντα φανηναι και αλλα μυρια θαυμασια περι αυτου προειρησθαι τοις θειοις προφηταις ουκ αγνοει. πολλους δε οντας ους επηγαγετο Ελληνας τε και Ιουδαιους επιμειναι αγαπωντας αυτον μαρτυρει, και το απ αυτου ωνομασμενον μη επιλειψαι φυλον.

And Josephus also, of Mattathias, a priest, who was a very notable man both among the Jews and still yet among the Romans, might worthily be a testifier concerning the truth of Christ. For he hesitates to call him a man, as a doer of paradoxical works and a teacher of true words, but blatantly names him Christ. And he is not ignorant that he was condemned to a cross and that he appeared on the third day alive and that other myriads of marvelous things were foretold concerning him by the divine prophets. And he testifies that those many whom he led, both Greeks and Jews, remained loving him, and that the tribe named after him was not extinct.

Και μοι δοκει ταυτα ιστορων μονομουχι βοαν αναλογως τοις εργοις θεον ειναι τον Χριστον· υπο δε του παραδοξου πραγματος καταπλαγεις ωδιπως μεσος παρεδραμε, μηδεν τοις εις αυτον πιστευσασιν επισκηψας, μαλλον δε και συνθεμενος. ταυτα μοι λογιζομενω θαυμαστον εικοτως κατεφαινετο μη τους Εβραιους φθασαι και προ των αλλων ανθρωπων εις Χριστιανισμον μεταβαλειν.

And it seems to me that in recounting these things he almost shouts out that Christ is God by analogy with his works. But, struck by the paradoxical matter, he ran a middle course somehow, in no way denouncing those who had faith in him, but rather even aligning himself with them. As I consider these things it appears somewhat miraculous to me that the Hebrews did not anticipate and convert to Christianity before other men.

The Religious Dialogue.

Century V or VI.

From the Religious Dialogue at the Sassanid Court, as given in Gerd Theissen, The Historical Jesus, page 86:

Ιωσιππος ο συγγραφευς υμων, ος ειρηκε περι Χριστου ανδρος δικαιου και αγαθου, εκ θειας χαριτος αναδειχθεντος σημειοις και τερασιν, ευεργετουντος πολλους....

Josephus, your historian, who has spoken about Christ as a just and good man, [about him] who from divine grace was shown forth by signs and wonders, working many things well....

John Malalas.

Century IX.

From John Malalas, Chronography 10:

Και εξ εκεινου ολεθρος ηρξατο τοις Ιουδαιοις, καθως Ιωσηπος ο Εβραιων φιλοσοφος ταυτα συνεγραψατο, ειρηκως και τουτο, οτι εξοτε Ιουδαιοι εσταυρωσαν Ιησουν, ος ην ανθρωπος αγαθος και δικαιος, ειπερ αρα τον τοιαυτον ανθρωπον δει λεγειν και μη θεον, ουκ εξελειψεν οδυνη εκ της Ιουδαιας χωρας. ταυτα εν τοις Ιουδαικοις συγγραμμασιν αυτου εξεθετη ο αυτος Ιωσηπος Ιουδαιοις.

And from that [time] the destruction of the Jews began, just as Josephus the philosopher of the Hebrews wrote down these things, having said this also, that from when the Jews crucified Jesus, who was a good and just man, if indeed it is necessary to call such a one a man and not God, trouble never left the land of Judea. These things the same Josephus has placed against the Jews in his Judaic writings.

Haimo of Auxerre.

Century IX.

Epitome of Sacred History 1.12b-13:

Testatur autem Hebraeorum scriptor de domino Iesu Christo quis fuerit, de quo his verbis scripsit ita: Fuit autem iisdem temporibus Iesus, vir sapiens, si tamen eum virum nominare fas est; erat enim mirabilium operum effector doctorque hominum eorum qui libenter quae vera sunt audiunt, et multos etiam ex gentibus sibi adiunxit; Christus hic erat. hunc accusatione primorum gentis nostrae virorum, cum Pilatus agendum in crucem esse decrevisset, non deseruerunt qui ab initio eum dilexerant; apparuit enim tertia die iterum vivus, secundum quod divinitus inspirati prophetae vel haec vel alia invicem miracula esse praedixerant. sed et in hodiernum diem Christianorum nomen perseverat et genus.

The writer of the Hebrews, moreover, testifies concerning the Lord Jesus Christ who was, concerning whom he writes thus with these words: [The Testimonium follows].

Agapius.

Century X.

Agapius, History of the World (English translation only):

Similarly Josephus, the Hebrew. For he says in the treatises that he has written on the governance* of the Jews: At this time there was a wise man who was called Jesus. His conduct was good, and he was known to be virtuous. And many people from among the Jews and other nations became his disciples. Pilate condemned him to be crucified and to die. But those who had become his disciples did not abandon his discipleship. They reported that he had appeared to them three days after his crucifixion, and that he was alive; accordingly he was perhaps the Christ, concerning whom the prophets have recounted wonders.

* This word is an emendation by Shlomo Pines, An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and its Implications, pages 8-9. The actual text reads on the evil of the Jews.

The Slavonic version of Josephus.

Century X or XI.

All English translations of the original Slavonic (or Old Russian) are formatted slightly from H. and K. Leeming, Josephus' Jewish War and its Slavonic Version. They apparently use the Thackeray translation. My changes are limited to punctuation and the like. All brackets [] are part of the translation.

Slavonic version of Josephus, Jewish War 2.9.3b-f §174 (English translation only; this passage is sometimes called the Testimonium Slavianum):

At that time there appeared a man, if it is proper to call him a man, whose nature and form were human but whose appearance was more than human and whose deeds were divine. And he worked wonderful and powerful miracles. Therefore it is impossible for me to call him a man. Then again, in view of his common nature, I shall not call him an angel [either].

And everything, whatever he did, he did by some unseen power, by word and command. Some said of him: Our first lawgiver has risen from the dead and has been demonstrating many cures and skills. Others thought that he was sent from God. But he was in much opposed to the law and did not observe the sabbath according to the ancestral customs, yet did nothing dirty, unclean, nor with use of hands, but worked everything by word only. And many of the people followed and listened to his teachings.

And many souls were aroused, thinking that by him the Jewish tribes would free themselves from the hands of the Romans. But it was his habit rather to remain in front of the city on the Mount of Olives; and there he also [freely] gave cures to people. And there 150 servants and a multitude of people joined him, seeing his power, how by word he did everything he wished. They bade him enter the city, kill the Roman troops and Pilate, and reign over these. But he did not care [to do so].

Later, when news of this came to the Jewish leaders, they assembled to the chief priests and said: We are powerless and [too] weak to oppose the Romans, like a slackened bow. Let us go and inform Pilate what we have heard, and we shall be free of anxiety; if at some time he shall hear [of this] from others, we shall be deprived of property, ourselves slaughtered, and [our] children exiled. And they went and informed Pilate. And he sent and killed many of the people and brought in that wonderworker. After inquiring about him Pilate understood that he was a doer of good, not of evil, [and] not a rebel, nor one desirous of kingship; and he released him. For he had cured his wife, who was dying.

And he went to the usual places and performed his usual deeds. And again, as more people gathered around him, he became renowned for his works more than all [others]. Again the lawyers were struck with envy against him. And they gave 30 talents to Pilate that they should kill him. And he took [it] and gave them liberty to carry out their wishes themselves. And they sought out a suitable time to kill him. For they had given Pilate 30 talents earlier, that he should give Jesus up to them. And they crucified him against the ancestral law, and they greatly reviled him.

This passage reflects the beginning and middle portions of the Testimonium; the next passage reflects the end. Slavonic version of Josephus, Jewish War 2.11.6c-d §220 (English translation only):

At this time there appeared many servants of the previously described wonderworker, telling the people about their master, that he was alive although he had died. And [they said]: He will free you from servitude. And many of the people listened to them and paid attention to their instructions, not because of their renown. For the apostles were from the lowly [folk]; for some were sailmakers, some were sandalmakers, some were manual workers, others fishermen. But they performed wonderful signs, in truth what[ever] they willed.

But the grateful governors, seeing the subversion of the people, planned with the scribes to take them and destroy them, lest a small [thing] be not small when in its fullness it becomes great. But they were ashamed and terrified by the signs and said: Such great wonders do not happen by magic; if they do not come by the forethought of God, they will be soon unmasked. And they gave them authority to go about freely. Later, being pestered by them, they released them, some to Caesar, some to Antioch, others in distant lands, for an investigation of the matter.

Slavonic version of Josephus, Jewish War 5.5.2 §195 (English translation only):

And above these inscriptions a fourth inscription hung, in those letters,* declaring Jesus, [a] king who had not reigned, crucified by [the] Jews, because he foretold the destruction of the city and the devastation of the temple.

* Id est, Greek, Roman, and Jewish letters.

Slavonic version of Josephus, Jewish War 5.5.4a-d §214 (English translation only):

Until this generation this veil was intact, for the people were pious. But now it was pitiful to look at it, for it had been suddenly rent from top to bottom when [the] benefactor, man and by his actions not man, was for reward handed over to be killed.

And they tell of many other signs that happened then; they said that after his killing and burial he was not found in the tomb. For some claimed he had risen, but others that he was stolen away by his friends.

I do not know who speaks more correctly. For a dead man cannot rise by himself unless aided by the prayer of another righteous man. Except he be an angel or one of the heavenly powers, or God himself appear as man and do what he wants, and go among people, and fall and lie and rise as is his will.

And others said that it could not be possible to steal him away; for they posted guards around his tomb, one thousand Romans and one thousand Jews. Such is what is said about this veil and as to the reason for it being torn.

Slavonic version of Josephus, Jewish War 6.5.3 §312-313 (English translation only):

But they were impelled to [make] war by an ambiguous prediction found in the sacred books, saying that in those times someone from the Judean land would be reigning over the whole world. For this there are various explanations.

For some thought it [meant] Herod, others the crucified miracle-worker Jesus, others Vespasian.

Georgius Cedrenus.

Century XI.

Georgius Cedrenus, Compendium of History (TLG 344.16-345.13; thanks to S. C. Carlson for the Greek of this passage in an IIDB post):

Φησι δε Ευσεβιος οτι τω ιεʹ ετει Τιβεριου βαπτιζεται ο κυριος ημων Ιησους Χριστος, συνωδα τω ευαγγελιω, και εν τω ιηʹ το σωτηριον υπεστη παθος, εν ετει του κοσμου ͵εφλθʹ. γραφει δε και Ιωσηπος περι μεν Ιωαννου του βαπτιστου ταυτα· Τισι των Ιουδαιων εδοκει διολωλεναι τον Ηρωδου στρατον υπο θεου και μαλα δικαιαν τιννυμενου δικην δια ποινην Ιωαννου του καλουμενου βαπτιστου. τουτον γαρ Ηρωδης κτεινει αγαθον ανδρα και τοις Ιουδαιοις κελευοντα αρετην επασκειν και τα προς αλληλους δικαιοσυνη και τα προς θεον ευσεβεια χρησθαι και συνιεναι βαπτισμον. περι δε του Χριστου παλιν ο αυτος φησιν οτι κατα τον καιρον τουτον Ιησους ο σοφος ανηρ ην, ειγε ανδρα λεγειν αυτον εχρην, ην γαρ παραδοξων εργων ποιητης και διδασκαλος ανθρωπων των εν ηδονη ταληθη δεχομενων· πολλους γαρ και απο Ελληνων ηγαγετο Χριστος. ον Πιλατου σταυρωσαντος ουκ επαυσαντο κηρυσσοντες περι αυτου οι το πρωτον αυτον αγαπησαντες μαθηται, εφανη γαρ αυτοις τριτην ημεραν εχων παλιν ζων, των θειων προφητων ταυτα τε και αλλα μαρτυρησαντων περι αυτου θαυμασια και ειρηκοτων. ουτος ο Τιβεριος ακουσας τα περι του Χριστου θαυματα ηβουληθη δια βασιλικου τυπου αναγορευσαι αυτον θεον, αλλ αντεπραχθη τουτω παρα της συγκλητου, καθως ουν Ευσεβιος λεγει.

And Eusebius says that in the fifteenth year of Tiberius our Lord Jesus Christ is baptized, in harmony with the gospel, and in the eighteenth year the salvific passion took place, in year 5539 of the world. And Josephus also writes these things concerning John the baptist as follows: It seemed to some of the Jews that the destruction of the army of Herod was from God, and that he was penalized most justly on account of his punishment of John, called the baptist. For Herod killed this good man who also commanded the Jews to exercise virtue and to employ justice toward one another and devotion toward God, and to come to baptism. But concerning Christ, again the same [author] says that at about this time there was Jesus, the wise man, if it be permitted to call him a man, for he was a doer of paradoxical works and a teacher of men who receive the truth with pleasure; for Christ led over many even from the gentiles. When Pilate had crucified him, the disciples who had first loved him did not stop preaching concerning him, for he appeared to them the third day living again, the divine prophets having testified and spoken both these things and other wonders concerning him. This Tiberius heard the wonders concerning Christ and wished through his royal seal to proclaim him god, but he was resisted in this by the senate, just as Eusebius therefore says.

Michael the Syrian.

Century XII.

From the Chronicle of Michael the Syrian, patriarch of Antioch, based on a message posted to XTalk by Ken Olson on July 29, 2004, based in turn on Shlomo Pines, page 26 of An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and its Implications (English translation of the original Syriac only; refer also to Marian Hillar, Flavius Josephus and His Testimony Concerning the Historical Jesus):

The writer Josephus also says in his work on the institutions of the Jews: In these times there was a wise man named Jesus, if it is fitting for us to call him a man. For he was a worker of glorious deeds and a teacher of truth. Many from among the Jews and the nations became his disciples. He was thought to be the messiah, but not according to the testimony of the principal [men] of [our] nation. Because of this, Pilate condemned him to the cross and he died. For those who had loved him did not cease to love him. He appeared to them alive after three days. For the prophets of God had spoken with regard to him of such marvelous things [as these]. And the people of the Christians, named after him, has not disappeared till [this] day.

Compare the statement that Jesus was thought to be the messiah (the Christ) with the similar line from Jerome, et credebatur esse Christus (and he was believed to be the Christ).

From Shlomo Pines, An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and its Implications, page 31:

Michael's text reads מסתברא דמשיחא איתו הואHe was thought to be the Messiah; there is another possible translation: It seemed that he was the Messiah, for מסתברא may mean it seemed.

Agapius' text reads fa-la'alla huwa al-masīhAccordingly he was perhaps the Messiah. The meaning of this sentence approximates closely to that of the Syriac sentence if the second rendering is adopted.

There is, in my opinion, a distinct possibility that whoever translated the Testimonium from the Syriac into Arabic, be it Agapius himself or somebody else, found in the Syriac text a phrase identical with, or very close to, Michael's phrase quoted above, and that he rendered מסתברא by la'allaperhaps.

Peter Comestor.

Century XII.

Scholastic History, on the evangelists:

In hoc loco ponit Iosephus commendationem domini Iesu in hunc modum: Fuit vero hisdem temporibus Iesus, sapiens vir, si tamen virum eum nominare fas est; erat enim mirabilium effector operum et doctor eorum qui libenter quae ventura sunt audiunt, et multos quidem Iudaeorum, multos etiam ex gentibus sibi adiunxit; Christus hic erat. hunc accusatione primorum nostrae gentis, cum Pilatus in crucem agendum esse decrevisset, non deseruerunt eum qui ab initio dilexerant eum. apparuit enim his iterum vivus, secundum quod divinitus inspirati prophetae vel haec vel alia de eo futura praedixerant. sed et in hodiernum diem Christianorum, qui ab ipso dicti sunt, et nomen perseverat et genus.

At this point Josephus places a commendation of the Lord Jesus in this manner: [The Testimonium follows].

John of Salisbury.

Century XII.

Polycraticus 2.9:

Unde Iosephus: Fuit autem iisdem temporibus Iesus, sapiens vir, si tamen virum eum appellare fas est. erat enim mirabilium operum effector doctorque hominum eorum qui libenter quae vera sunt audiunt; et multos quidem Iudaeorum, multos etiam ex gentibus sibi adiunxit. Christus hic erat. hunc accusatione primorum nostrae gentis virorum, cum Pilatus in crucem agendum esse decrevisset, non deseruerunt hi qui ab initio eum dilexerant; perseveraverunt. apparuit autem die eis tertia iterum vivus, secundum quod divinitus inspirati prophetae vel haec vel alia de eo innumera miracula futura esse praedixerant. sed et in hodiernum diem Christianorum, qui ab eo nuncupati sunt, et nomen perseverat et genus.