The missions of the twelve and seventy.

Matthew 10.5-16; 14.13-14 = Mark 6.7-13; 6.30-34 = Luke 9.1-6; 9.10-11; 10.1-12  (John 6.1-2).

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Notes and quotes.

§ I note the following agreements between Matthew and Luke against Mark:

  1. Matthew 10.1 has the aorist middle participle προσκαλεσαμενος (having called to), while Luke 9.1 has the aorist middle participle συγκαλεσαμενος (having called together); Mark 6.7 has the present active finite verb προσκαλειται (he calls to).
  2. Matthew 10.1 and Luke 9.1 have εδωκεν (he gave) where Mark 6.7 has εδιδου (same translation).
  3. Matthew 10.1 has θεραπευειν πασαν νοσον (to heal every disease). Luke 9.1 has νοσους θεραπευειν (to heal diseases). Mark 6.7 has no corresponding phrase.
  4. Matthew 10.5 and Luke 9.2 have the finite απεστειλεν (he sent away). Mark 6.7 has the infinitive αποστελλειν (to send away).
  5. Matthew 10.7 has κηρυσσετε λεγοντες οτι, Ηγγικεν η βασιλεια των ουρανων (preach saying: The kingdom of the heavens has come near); then he adds in 10.8 ασθενουντας θεραπευετε (heal the sick). Luke 9.2 has κηρυσσειν την βασιλειαν του θεου και ιασθαι τους ασθενεις (to preach the kingdom of God and cure the sick). Furthermore, Luke 10.9 has ηγγικεν εφ υμας η βασιλεια του θεου (the kingdom of God has come near upon you). Mark 6.8 has no corresponding phrase. A major agreement.
  6. Matthew 10.9 has the second person imperative κτησησθε (acquire); Luke 9.3 has the second person imperative αιρετε (take). Mark 6.8 has the third person subjunctive αιρωσιν (take) in indirect discourse.
  7. Matthew 10.9 has μηδε αργυρον (nor silver coinage), then 10.10 adds μηδε υποδηματα (nor shoes) and μηδε ραβδον (nor a staff). Luke 9.3 has μητε ραβδον (not a staff) and μητε αργυριον (nor silver), and 10.4 has μη υποδηματα (no shoes). Mark 6.8 omits mention of silver and has ει μη ραβδον μονον (except a staff alone) and υποδεδεμενους σανδαλια (wearing sandals). A major agreement.
  8. Matthew 10.10 has the saying αξιος γαρ ο εργατης της τροφης αυτου (for the worker is worthy of his food). Luke 10.7 has αξιος γαρ ο εργατης του μισθου αυτου (for the worker is worthy of his wage). Mark 6.9-10 has no corresponding phrase. A major agreement.
  9. Matthew 10.11 has εις ην δ αν (but into whichever). Luke 9.4 has και εις ην αν (and into whichever). Mark 6.10 has οπου εαν (wherever).
  10. Matthew 10.13 and Luke 10.5-6 both give detailed instructions on blessing a house with peace. Mark 6.10 lacks any such instructions. A major agreement.
  11. Matthew 10.14 has εξερχομενοι εξω της οικιας η της πολεως εκεινης εκτιναξατε τον κονιορτον (coming out from that house or that city, shake off the dust). Luke 9.5 has εξερχομενοι απο της πολεως εκεινης τον κονιορτον... αποτινασσατε (coming out away from that city, shake away... the dust). Mark 6.11 has εκπορευομενοι εκειθεν εκτιναξατε τον χουν (journeying out thence, shake off the dirt). A major agreement.
  12. Matthew 10.15 has a saying about Sodom and Gomorrah that lines up with a saying about Sodom in Luke 10.12. Mark 6.11 has no corresponding saying.
  13. Matthew 10.16 has ιδου, εγω αποστελλω υμας ως προβατα εν μεσω λυκων (behold, I send you away as sheep in the midst of wolves). Luke 10.3 has ιδου, αποστελλω υμας ως αρνας εν μεσω λυκων (behold, I send you away as lambs in the midst of wolves). Mark 6.11 has no corresponding phrase. A major agreement.
  14. Matthew 9.37-38 has a saying about the Lord of the harvest right before the sending out of the twelve. Luke 10.2 has a parallel saying at the sending out of the seventy-two. Nothing at the sending of the twelve in Mark 6.7-13 corresponds to this saying. A major agreement.

§ The phrase τα προβατα τα απολωλοτα οικου Ισραηλ (the lost sheep of the house of Israel) is repeated in Matthew 15.24. The phrase και ουδε φαγειν ευκαιρουν (and they had no opportunity to eat) is repeated in Mark 3.20. The phrase οτι ησαν ως προβατα μη εχοντα ποιμενα (because they were as sheep without a shepherd) in Mark 6.34 is transposed to Matthew 9.36 (refer to Numbers 27.17b). The phrases λεγω υμιν, ανεκτοτερον εσται γη Σοδομων και Γομορρων εν ημερα κρισεως η τη πολει εκεινη (I say to you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah on the day of judgment than for that city) in Matthew 10.15 and λεγω υμιν οτι Σοδομοις εν τη ημερα εκεινη ανεκτοτερον εσται η τη πολει εκεινη (I say to you that it will be more tolerable for the Sodomites on that day than for that city) in Luke 10.12 are repeated and transposed in Matthew 11.24.

§ The mission of the twelve is intercalated with the death of John the baptist in Mark and Luke.

§ Paul in 1 Corinthians 9.3-14:

Η εμη απολογια τοις εμε ανακρινουσιν εστιν αυτη. μη ουκ εχομεν εξουσιαν φαγειν και πειν; μη ουκ εχομεν εξουσιαν αδελφην γυναικα περιαγειν, ως και οι λοιποι αποστολοι και οι αδελφοι του κυριου και Κηφας; η μονος εγω και Βαρναβας ουκ εχομεν εξουσιαν μη εργαζεσθαι; τις στρατευεται ιδιοις οψωνιοις ποτε; τις φυτευει αμπελωνα και τον καρπον αυτου ουκ εσθιει; η τις ποιμαινει ποιμνην και εκ του γαλακτος της ποιμνης ουκ εσθιει; μη κατα ανθρωπον ταυτα λαλω; η και ο νομος ταυτα ου λεγει; εν γαρ τω Μωυσεως νομω γεγραπται· Ου κημωσεις βουν αλοωντα. μη των βοων μελει τω θεω; η δι ημας παντως λεγει; δι ημας γαρ εγραφη, οτι οφειλει επ ελπιδι ο αροτριων αροτριαν, και ο αλοων επ ελπιδι του μετεχειν. ει ημεις υμιν τα πνευματικα εσπειραμεν, μεγα ει ημεις υμων τα σαρκικα θερισομεν; ει αλλοι της υμων εξουσιας μετεχουσιν, ου μαλλον ημεις; αλλ ουκ εχρησαμεθα τη εξουσια ταυτη, αλλα παντα στεγομεν ινα μη τινα εγκοπην δωμεν τω ευαγγελιω του Χριστου. ουκ οιδατε οτι οι τα ιερα εργαζομενοι τα εκ του ιερου εσθιουσιν, οι τω θυσιαστηριω παρεδρευοντες τω θυσιαστηριω συμμεριζονται; ουτως και ο κυριος διεταξεν τοις το ευαγγελιον καταγγελλουσιν εκ του ευαγγελιου ζην.

My apologetic to those who judge me is this: Do we not have authority to eat and drink? Do we not have authority to lead along a sister wife, even as the rest of the apostles and the brothers of the Lord and Cephas? Or do only Barnabas and I not have authority not to work? Who ever serves as a soldier on his own expenses? Who plants a vineyard and does not eat the fruit of it? Or who shepherds a flock and does not use the milk of the flock? I am not speaking these things according to man, am I? Or does not the law also say these things? For it is written in the Law of Moses: You shall not muzzle an ox while he is threshing. God is not concerned about oxen, is he? Or is he speaking altogether on our account? On our account [indeed] it was written, because the plowman ought to plow in hope, and the thresher to thresh in hope of partaking. If we sowed spiritual things in you, is it a great thing if we harvest fleshly things from you? If others partake of authority over you, do we not more? But we did not use this authority, but we endure all things so that we might not give hindrance to the gospel of Christ. Do you not know that those who do the temple eat the things from the temple, and those who attend to the altar have their share from the altar? So also the Lord ordered those who announce the gospel to live from the gospel.

1 Timothy 5.18:

Λεγει γαρ η γραφη· Βουν αλοωντα ου φιμωσεις, και· Αξιος ο εργατης του μισθου αυτου.

For the scripture says: You shall not muzzle an ox while he is threshing, and: The worker is worthy of his wage.

§ Didache 11.3-6, 11-12:

Περι δε των αποστολων και προφητων, κατα το δογμα του ευαγγελιου ουτω ποιησατε. πας δε αποστολος ερχομενος προς υμας δεχθητω ως κυριος. ου μενει [ει μη] ημεραν μιαν, εαν δε η χρεια, και την αλλην, τρεις δε εαν μεινη, ψευδοπροφητης εστιν. εξερχομενος δε ο αποστολος μηδεν λαμβανετω ει μη αρτον εως ου αυλισθη, εαν δε αργυριον αιτη, ψευδοπροφητης εστι.

But, concerning the apostles and prophets, do thus according to the dogma of the gospel. And let every apostle coming to you be received as the Lord. He does not remain except one day, but if there is need also another; but, if he should remain three days, he is a false prophet. And when an apostle goes out let him accept nothing except bread until he lodges; but, if he should ask for silver, he is a false prophet.

Πας δε προφητης δεδοκιμασμενος, αληθινος, ποιων εις μυστηριον κοσμικον εκκλησιας, μη διδασκων δε ποιειν οσα αυτος ποιει, ου κριθησεται εφ υμων, μετα θεου γαρ εχει την κρισιν, ωσαυτως γαρ εποιησαν και οι αρχαιοι προφηται. ος δ αν ειπη εν πνευματι· Δος μοι αργυρια η ετερα τινα, ουκ ακουσεσθε αυτου, εαν δε περι αλλων υστερουντων ειπη δουναι, μηδεις αυτον κρινετω.

But every prophet who has been tried and is true, who does unto a worldly mystery of the church, and who does not teach others to do as many things as he himself does, shall not be judged by you, for he has his judgment with God, for so also did the ancient prophets. But whoever should say in a spirit: Give me silver or some other thing, you shall not listen to him; but if he should tell you to give on behalf of others in want, let no one judge him.

Didache 13.1-2:

Πας δε προφητης αληθινος θελων καθησθαι προς υμας αξιος εστι της τροφης αυτου. ωσαυτως διδακαλος αληθινος εστιν αξιος, και αυτος ωσπερ ο εργατης της τροφης αυτου.

But every true prophet wishing to settle with you is worthy of his food. Likewise a true teacher is worthy, and is himself just as a worker worthy of his food.

§ Ignatius to Polycarp 2.2:

Φρονιμος γινου ως οφις εν απασιν, και ακεραιος εις αει ως η περιστερα.

Become wise as a serpent in all things, and innocent as the dove for always.

§ 2 Clement 5.2:

Λεγει γαρ ο κυριος· Εσεσθε ως αρνια εν μεσω λυκων.

For the Lord says: You will be as lambs in the midst of wolves.

§ From Epiphanius, Panarion 30.13, writing of the gospel of the Ebionites:

Εν τω γουν παρ αυτοις ευαγγελιω κατα Ματθαιον ονομαζομενω, ουχ ολω δε πληρεστατω, αλλα νενοθευμενω και ηκρωτηριασμενω, Εβραικον δε τουτο καλουσιν, εμφερεται, οτι Εγενετο τις ανηρ ονοματι Ιησους, και αυτος ως ετων τριακοντα, ος εξελεξατο ημας. και ελθων εις Καφαρναουμ εισηλθεν εις την οικιαν Σιμωνος του επικληθεντος Πετρου, και ανοιξας το στομα αυτου ειπε· Παρερχομενος παρα την λιμνην Τιβεριαδος εξελεξαμην Ιωαννην και Ιακωβον υιους Ζεβεδαιου, και Σιμωνα, και Ανδρεαν, και Θαδδαιον, και Σιμωνα τον Ζηλωτην, και Ιουδαν τον Ισκαριωτην, και σε τον Ματθαιον καθεζομενον επι του τελωνιου εκαλεσα, και ηκολουθησας μοι. υμας ουν βουλομαι ειναι δεκαδυο αποστολους, εις μαρτυριον του Ισραηλ.

In the gospel among them named according to Matthew, but not all very complete, but illegitimized and adulterated, but they call it the Hebraic [gospel], it states: There was a certain man, Jesus by name, and he himself was about thirty years old, who elected us. And having come to Capernaum he went into the house of Simon, nicknamed Peter, and he opened his mouth and said: While passing by the lake of Tiberias I elected John and Jacob, the sons of Zebedee, and Simon, and Andrew, and Thaddeus, and Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, and you, Matthew, I called while you were sitting in the toll-booth, and you followed me. I wish, therefore, for you to be twelve apostles as a testimony of Israel.

§ Marginal gloss at Matthew 10.16, miniscule 1424, referring to the Judaic gospel:

Το Ιουδαικον· Υπερ οφεις.

The Judaic [gospel has]: Beyond serpents.

§ Thomas 14d:

ΑΥΩ ΕΤΕΤΝ̅ϢΑΝΒΩΚ ΕϨΟΥΝ ΕΚΑϨΝΙΜ ΑΥΩ Ν̅ΤΕΤΜ̅ΜΟΟϢΕ ϨΝ̅Ν̅ΧΩΡΑ ΕΥϢΑΡ̅ΠΑΡΑΔΕΧΕ Μ̅ΜΩΤΝ̅ ΠΕΤΟΥΝΑΚΑΑϤ ϨΑΡΩΤΝ̅ ΟΥΟΜϤ̅ ΝΕΤϢΩΝΕ Ν̅ϨΗΤΟΥ ΕΡΙΘΕΡΑΠΕΥΕ Μ̅ΜΟΟΥ.

And if you go into any land and walk in the country, if they receive you, eat what they put before you; heal the sick among them.

Thomas 39c:

Ν̅ΤΩΤΝ̅ ΔΕ ϢΩΠΕ Μ̅ΦΡΟΝΙΜΟC Ν̅ΘΕ Ν̅ΝϨΟϤ ΑΥΩ Ν̅ΑΚΕΡΑΙΟC Ν̅ΘΕ Ν̅Ν̅ϬΡΟΜΠΕ.

But you be cunning as serpents and innocent as doves.

Refer also to Oxyrhynchus papyrus 655, column 2, lines 21-23:

...μοι ω[ς οφεις και α]κεραι[οι ως περιστε]ρ̣α̣[ι....]

...a[s serpents and i]nnoce[nt as do]ve[s....]

Thomas 73:

ΠΕϪΕ Ι̅C̅ ϪΕ ΠΩϨC ΜΕΝ ΝΑϢΩϤ Ν̅ΕΡΓΑΤΗC ΔΕ CΟΒΚ CΟΠC̅ ΔΕ Μ̅ΠϪΟΕΙC ϢΙΝΑ ΕϤΝΑΝΕϪ ΕΡΓΑΤΗC ΕΒΟΛ ΕΠΩϨ̅C̅.

Jesus said: The harvest indeed is great, but the workers few; but pray to the Lord to send workers into the harvest.

§ Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 4009, recto:

  1. ...
  2. ... ει[ς] ...
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  5. ...[δικ]αιος ως αι ...
  6. ... [κ]αι φρονιμ[οι] ...
  7. ... εσεσθε ω[ς] ...
  8. ...ον λ[υ]κω[ν] ...
  9. ... [αυτ]ον· Εαν ου
  10. ...μεν.
  11. ... λεγει μοι· Οι
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  5. ... [rig]hteous as the ...
  6. ... [a]nd wi[se] ...
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  8. ... of w[o]lve[s] ...
  9. ... [hi]m: If not
  10. ... we ...
  11. ... says to me: The
  12. ... having ... the
  13. ... [nev]er to h[im] not
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