Origen on Josephus.

Origenic references to the Jewish historian.


Refer to my analytic text of the Origenic passages that refer to Josephus.

Origen, On Matthew 10.17:

Ιακωβος δε εστιν ουτος ον λεγει Παυλος ιδειν εν τη προς Γαλατας επιστολη, ειπων· Ετερον δε των αποστολων ουκ ειδον ει μη Ιακωβον τον αδελφον του κυριου. επι τοσουτον δε διελεμψεν ουτος ο Ιακωβος εν τω λαω επι δικαιοσυνη ως Φλαβιον Ιωσηπον αναγραψαντα εν εικοσι βιβλιοις την Ιουδαικην αρχαιολογιαν, την αιτιαν παραστησαι βουλομενον του τα τοσαυτα πεπονθεναι τον λαον ως και τον ναον κατασκαφηναι, ειρηκεναι κατα μηνιν θεου ταυτα αυτοις απηντηκεναι δια τα εις Ιακωβον τον αδελφον Ιησου του λεγομενου Χριστου υπ αυτων τετολμημενα. και το θαυμαστον εστιν οτι, τον Ιησουν ημων ου καταδεξαμενος ειναι Χριστον, ουδεν ηττον Ιακωβω δικαιοσυνην εμαρτυρησε τοσαυτην. λεγει δε οτι και ο λαος ταυτα ενομιζε δια τον Ιακωβον πεπονθεναι. και Ιουδας εγραψεν επιστολην ολιγοστιχον μεν, πεπληρωμενην δε των της ουρανιου χαριτος ερρωμενων λογων, οστις εν τω προοιμιω ειρηκεν· Ιουδας Ιησου Χριστου δουλος, αδελφος δε Ιακωβου. περι δε Ιωσηφ και Σιμονος ημεις ουδεν ιστορησαμεν. .... Μηποτε δε εμφαινεται δια τουτων επαπορησις περι του μηδε ανθρωπον ειναι, αλλα τι θειοτερον τον Ιησουν, υιον μεν οντα, ως υπελαμβανον, Ιωσηφ και Μαριας, αδελφον δε τεσσαρων, ουδεν δ ηττον και ετερων θηλειων, και μηδεν εχοντα τινι των εκ γενους παραπλησιον, μηδ εκ παιδευσεως και διδασκαλιας επι τοσουτον σοφιας και δυναμεως εληλακοτα.

But James is this one whom Paul says that he saw in the epistle to the Galatians, saying: But I did not see any of the other apostles except James the brother of the Lord. And in such a way among the people did this James shine for his justice that Flavius Josephus, who wrote the Judaic Antiquities in twenty books, wishing to demonstrate the cause why the people suffered such great things that even the temple was razed down, said that these things came to pass against them in accordance with the ire of God on account of the things which were dared by them against James the brother of Jesus who is called Christ. And the wondrous thing is that, although he did not accept our Jesus to be Christ, he yet testified that the justice of James was not at all small; and he says that even the people supposed they had suffered these things on account of James. And Jude wrote an epistle short in lines but full of the healthy words of the grace of heaven, he who in the preface has said: Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James. But concerning Joseph and Simon we have nothing to relate. .... And perhaps by these things a new doubt is indicated concerning that Jesus was not a man, but rather something more divine, since he was the son, as they received, of Joseph and Mary, and was the brother of four, and no less of the others, the females, and yet had nothing like any one of those from his family, nor had come from education and teaching unto such wisdom and power.

Origen, Against Celsus 1.16:

Δυνατον γαρ τον βουλομενον αναγνωναι τα γεγραμμενα Φλαυιω Ιωσηπω περι της των Ιουδαιων αρχαιοτητος εν δυσιν, οπου πολλην συναγωγην συγγραφεων φερει μαρτυρουντων τη Ιουδαιων αρχαιοτητι.

For it is possible for the one who wishes [to do so] to read the writings of Flavius Josephus concerning the ancientness of the Jews, in two [books], where he produces a great collection of historians who testify to the ancientness of the Jews.

Origen, Against Celsus 1.47:

Εν γαρ τω οκτωκαιδεκατω της Ιουδαικης αρχαιολογιας ο Ιωσηπος μαρτυρει τω Ιωαννη ως βαπτιστη γεγενημενω και καθαρσιον τοις βαπτισαμενοις επαγγελλομενω. ο δ αυτος, καιτοι γε απιστων τω Ιησου ως Χριστω, ζητων την αιτιαν της των Ιεροσολυμων πτωσεως και της του ναου καθαιρεσεως, δεον αυτον ειπειν οτι η κατα του Ιησου επιβουλη τουτων αιτια γεγονε τω λαω, επει απεκτειναν τον προφητευομενον Χριστον, ο δε και ωσπερ ακων ου μακραν της αληθειας γενομενος φησι ταυτα συμβεβηκεναι τοις Ιουδαιοις κατ εκδικησιν Ιακωβου του δικαιου, ος ην αδελφος Ιησου του λεγομενου Χριστου, επειδηπερ δικαιοτατον αυτον οντα απεκτειναν. τον δε Ιακωβον τουτον ο Ιησου γνησιος μαθητης Παυλος φησιν εωρακεναι ως αδελφον του κυριου, ου τοσουτον δια το προς αιματος συγγενες η την κοινην αυτων ανατροφην οσον δια το ηθος και τον λογον. ειπερ ουν δια Ιακωβον λεγει συμβεβηκεναι τοις Ιουδαιοις τα κατα την ερημωσιν της Ιερουσαλημ, πως ουχι ευλογωτερον δια Ιησουν τον Χριστον τουτο φασκειν γεγονεναι; ου της θειοτητος μαρτυρες αι τοσαυται των μεταβαλοντων απο της χυσεως των κακων εκκλησιαι και ηρτημενων του δημιουργου και παντ αναφεροντων επι την προς εκεινον αρεσκειαν.

For in the eighteenth volume of the Judaic Antiquities Josephus testifies to John as having been a baptist and promised cleansing to those who were baptized. But he himself, though not believing in Jesus as Christ, in seeking the cause of the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the temple, whereas he ought to have said that the conspiracy against Jesus was the cause of these things happening to the people, since they killed the prophecied Christ, even says, being unwillingly not far from the truth, that these things befell the Jews as vengeance for James the just, who was a brother of Jesus who is called Christ, since they killed him who was most just. Paul, a genuine disciple of Jesus, says that he saw this James as a brother of the Lord, not so much on account of their relationship by blood or of their common upbringing as on account of his ethics and speech. If, therefore, he says that the things surrounding the desolation of Jerusalem befell the Jews on account of James, how is it not more reasonable to say that it happened on account of Jesus the Christ? Of his divinity so many churches, made up of those who have changed over from a flood of evils and have joined themselves to the demiurge, and who refer everything to pleasure toward him.

Origen, Against Celsus 2.13:

Τουτο γαρ ηρξατο μεν ετι Νερωνος βασιλευοντος, παρετεινε δε εως της Ουεσπασιανου ηγεμονιας, ου ο υιος Τιτος καθειλε την Ιερουσαλημ, ως μεν Ιωσηπος γραφει, δια Ιακωβον τον δικαιον, τον αδελφον Ιησου του λεγομενου Χριστου, ως δε η αληθεια παριστησι, δια Ιησουν τον Χριστον του θεου.

For this [siege] began while Nero was still being king, and it lasted until the leadership of Vespasian, whose son Titus destroyed Jerusalem, as Josephus writes, on account of James the just, the brother of Jesus who was called Christ, but, as the truth demonstrates, [actually] on account of Jesus the Christ of God.

Origen, Against Celsus 4.11:

Και ο βουλομενος γε αναγνωτω τα Φλαυιου Ιωσηπου περι της Ιουδαιων αρχαιοτητος δυο βιβλια, ινα γνω τινα τροπον αρχαιοτερος ην Μωυσης των κατα χρονων μακρας περιοδους κατακλυσμους και εκπυρωσεις φησαντων γινεσθαι εν τω κοσμω.

And let the one who wishes [to do so] read the two books of Flavius Josephus concerning the ancientness of the Jews, in order that he might know in what way Moses was more ancient than those who say that over long periods of time cataclysms and conflagrations happen in the world.

Here I lay out the verbal overlaps between these Origenic passages on Josephus. I have divided each passage up according to the scheme detailed on my analytic text page. Any and all verbal overlaps are either italicized, if the overlap is an agreement between two passages, or boldfaced, if it is an agreement between three. Furthermore, I have underlined all agreements between these Origenic texts and the extant text of Josephus, Antiquities 20.9.1 200, concerning James the brother of Jesus. Accompanying each pair or trio of passages is a simple list, in English translation, of the overlapping words.

A. Paul on the brother of the Lord:

On Matthew 10.17. Against Celsus 1.47.
Ιακωβος δε εστιν ουτος
 
ον λεγει Παυλος
ιδειν εν τη προς Γαλατας
επιστολη, ειπων·
Ετερον δε των αποστολων
ουκ ειδον ει μη Ιακωβον
τον αδελφον του κυριου.
 
 
 
James, this, Paul, brother of the Lord.
Τον δε Ιακωβον τουτον
ο Ιησου γνησιος μαθητης
Παυλος φησιν
εωρακεναι
 
 
 
ως αδελφον του κυριου,
ου τοσουτον δια το προς
αιματος συγγενες
η την κοινην αυτων ανατροφην
οσον δια το ηθος και τον λογον.

B. The justice of James:

On Matthew 10.17. Against Celsus 1.47.
Επι τοσουτον δε διελεμψεν ουτος
ο Ιακωβος εν τω λαω επι
δικαιοσυνη....
 
...ουδεν ηττον Ιακωβω
δικαιοσυνην εμαρτυρησε τοσαυτην.
...επειδηπερ
 
δικαιοτατον αυτον
οντα απεκτειναν.
 
Just(ice).

C. Josephus and the Antiquities:

On Matthew 10.17. Against Celsus 1.47. Against Celsus 2.13.
...ως Φλαβιον Ιωσηπον
αναγραψαντα
εν
εικοσι βιβλιοις 
την Ιουδαικην
αρχαιολογιαν.

 
Εν γαρ
τω οκτωκαιδεκατω
της Ιουδαικης
αρχαιολογιας
ο Ιωσηπος μαρτυρει
τω Ιωαννη
ως βαπτιστη
γεγενημενω και
καθαρσιον τοις
βαπτισαμενοις
επαγγελλομενω. 
...ως μεν Ιωσηπος
γραφει....
 
 
 
 
Josephus, in, write(s), the Judaic Antiquities.

D. Demonstrating or seeking the cause:

On Matthew 10.17. Against Celsus 1.47.
...την αιτιαν παραστησαι
βουλομενον του τα τοσαυτα
πεπονθεναι τον λαον ως
και τον ναον κατασκαφηναι....
 
The cause of, and, the temple, down.
...ζητων την αιτιαν
της των Ιεροσολυμων
πτωσεως
και της του ναου καθαιρεσεως....

E and G. On account of James and of Jesus:

On Matthew 10.17. Against Celsus 1.47. Against Celsus 2.13.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
...ειρηκεναι
κατα μηνιν θεου
ταυτα αυτοις
απηντηκεναι
 
δια
τα εις Ιακωβον
 
τον αδελφον Ιησου
του λεγομενου
Χριστου

υπ αυτων
τετολμημενα....
 
 
 
 
λεγει δε οτι
και ο λαος
ταυτα ενομιζε
δια τον Ιακωβον
πεπονθεναι.

 
 
 
 
...ο δε και ωσπερ
ακων ου μακραν
 
της αληθειας
γενομενος φησι
 
ταυτα
συμβεβηκεναι
τοις Ιουδαιοις
κατ εκδικησιν
Ιακωβου
του δικαιου, ος ην
αδελφος Ιησου
του λεγομενου
Χριστου
....
 
 
ειπερ ουν
δια Ιακωβον λεγει
συμβεβηκεναι τοις
Ιουδαιοις τα κατα
την ερημωσιν
της Ιερουσαλημ,
πως ουχι ευλογωτερον
δια Ιησουν
τον Χριστον
τουτο φασκειν
γεγονεναι;
 
Τουτο γαρ ηρξατο
μεν ετι Νερωνος
βασιλευοντος,
παρετεινε δε εως
της Ουεσπασιανου
ηγεμονιας, ου ο
υιος Τιτος καθειλε
την Ιερουσαλημ...
 
 
 
 
 
 
δια
Ιακωβον
τον δικαιον,
τον αδελφον Ιησου
του λεγομενου
Χριστου

ως δε η αληθεια
παριστησι,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
δια Ιησουν
τον Χριστον
του θεου.
Jerusalem, these things, to them, on account of James, the just, the brother of Jesus who is called Christ, on account of Jesus the Christ.

Note that I have combined E and G for convenience.

F. Not believing in or accepting Jesus as Christ:

On Matthew 10.17. Against Celsus 1.47.
Και το θαυμαστον εστιν οτι,
τον Ιησουν ημων ου
καταδεξαμενος ειναι Χριστον....
 
Jesus, Christ.
Ο δ αυτος, καιτοι γε απιστων
τω Ιησου
ως Χριστω....

H. Concerning the ancientness of the Jews:

Against Celsus 1.16. Against Celsus 4.11.
Δυνατον γαρ τον βουλομενον
αναγνωναι τα γεγραμμενα
Φλαυιω Ιωσηπω
περι της των Ιουδαιων
αρχαιοτητος εν δυσιν,
οπου πολλην συναγωγην
συγγραφεων φερει μαρτυρουντων
τη Ιουδαιων αρχαιοτητι.
 
The one who wishes, read the, Flavius Josephus, concerning the ancientness of the Jews, two, ancient.
Και ο βουλομενος γε
αναγνωτω τα
Φλαυιου Ιωσηπου
περι της Ιουδαιων
αρχαιοτητος δυ
ο βιβλια,
ινα γνω τινα τροπον
 
αρχαιοτερος ην Μωυσης
των κατα χρονων μακρας
περιοδους κατακλυσμους
και εκπυρωσεις φησαντων
γινεσθαι εν τω κοσμω.

Refer also to my page on Josephus.