On scandals.

Matthew 5.29-30; 18.6-10 = Mark 9.42-48 = Luke 17.1-2.

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Notes and quotes.

§ I note the following agreement between Matthew and Luke against Mark:

  • Matthew 18.7b has αναγκη γαρ ελθειν τα σκανδαλα, πλην ουαι τω ανθρωπω δι ου το σκανδαλον ερχεται (for it is necessary that scandals should come, but woe to the man through whom the scandal comes). Luke 17.1b has ανενδεκτον εστιν του τα σκανδαλα μη ελθειν, πλην ουαι δι ου ερχεται (it is impossible for scandals not to come, but woe to him through whom they come). Mark 9.42 has no equivalent. A major agreement.

§ Clement in 1 Clement 46.8:

Μνησθητε των λογων Ιησου του κυριου ημων, ειπεν γαρ· Ουαι τω ανθρωπω εκεινω· καλον ην αυτω ει ουκ εγεννηθη η ενα των εκλεκτων μου σκανδαλισαι· κρειτον ην αυτω περιτεθηναι μυλον και καταποντισθηναι εις την θαλασσαν η ενα των εκλεκτων μου διαστρεψαι.

Remember the words of our Lord Jesus, for he said: Woe to that man! It would be good for him if he were not born, rather than that he should scandalize one of my elect ones. It would be better for him to place a millstone about him and be sunk into the sea than that he should turn away one of my elect ones.

2 Clement 7.6:

Των γαρ μη τηρησαντων, φησιν, την σφραγιδα· Ο σκωληξ αυτων ου τελευτησει, και το πυρ αυτων ου σβεσθησεται, και εσονται εις ορασιν παση σαρκι.

For he says of them who have not kept their seal: Their worm does not come to an end, and their fire shall not be extinguished, and they shall be for a spectacle to all flesh.

2 Clement 17.7:

Οι δε δικαιοι ευπραγησαντες και υπομειναντες τας βασανους και μισησαντες τας ηδυπαθειας της ψυχης, οταν θεασωνται τους αστοχησαντας και αρνησαμενους δια των λογων η δια των εργων τον Ιησουν, οπως κολαζονται δειναις βασανοις πυρι ασβεστω, εσονται δοξαν διδοντες τω θεω αυτων, λεγοντες οτι εσται ελπις τω δεδουλευκοτι θεω εξ ολης καρδιας.

But the just who have done well and have endured the tortures and have hated the pleasures of the soul, when they see those who have missed the way and have denied Jesus through words or through works, how they are punished with terrible tortures by unquenchable fire, shall be giving glory to their God, saying that there will be a hope for the one who has served God from his whole heart.

Pseudo-Clement, Homily 12.29.1:

Ο της αληθειας προφητης εφη· Τα αγαθα ελθειν δει, μακαριος δε δι ου ερχεται. ομοιως και τα κακα αναγκη ελθειν, ουαι δε δι ου ερχεται.

The prophet of truth said: Good things must come, and blessed is he through whom they come. Likewise also it is necessary that evil things come, and woe to him through whom they come.

§ The Shepherd of Hermas, Similitude 9.12.3:

Οτι, φησιν, επ εσχατων των ημερων της συντελειας φανερος εγενετο· δια τουτο καινη εγενετο η πυλη, ινα οι μελλοντες σωζεσθαι δι αυτης εις την βασιλειαν εισελθωσι του θεου.

Because, he says, he became apparent at the last days of the consummation; on this account the gate became new, so that the ones about to be saved may go in through it into the kingdom of God.

§ Ignatius to the Ephesians 16.2b:

Ο τοιουτος, ρυπαρος γενομενος, εις το πυρ το ασβεστον χωρησει· ομοιως και ο ακουων αυτου.

Such a man, having become defiled, will depart into the unquenchable fire; likewise also the one who hears him.

§ From Jerome, On Ezekiel 6, commentary on Ezekiel 18.7, writing of the gospel according to the Hebrews:

Et in evangelio quod iuxta Hebraeos Nazaraei legere consueverunt, inter maxima ponitur crimina qui fratris sui spiritum contristaverit.

And in the gospel which the Nazaraeans are accustomed to read, according to the Hebrews, it places among the maximal crimes one who has caused sorrow to the spirit of his brother.

§ Justin Martyr, Apology 1.15.1-4:

Περι μεν ουν σωφροσυνης τοσουτον ειπεν· Ος αν εμβλεφη γυναικι προς το επιθυμησαι αυτης ηδη εμοιχευσι τη καρδια παρα τω θεω. και· Ει ο οφθαλμος σου ο δεξιος σκανδαλιζει σε, εκκοψον αυτον· συμφερει γαρ σοι μονοφθαλμον εισελθειν εις την βασιλειαν των ουρανων η μετα των δυο πεμφθηναι εις το αιωνιον πυρ. και· ος γαμει απολελυμενην αφ ετερου ανδρος μοιχαται. και· Εισιν τινες οιτινες ευνουχισθησαν υπο των ανθρωπων, εισι δε οι εγεννηθησαν ευνουχοι, εισι δε οι ευνουχισαν εαυτους δια την βασιλειαν των ουρανων· πλην ου παντες τουτο χωρουσιν.

About modesty, therefore, he said this: Whoever looks at a woman to desire her already commits adultery in the heart before God. And: If your right eye scandalizes you, cut it out, for it is better for you to go into the kingdom of the heavens one-eyed than to be sent with two eyes into the eternal fire. And: Whoever marries a woman divorced from another man commits adultery. And: There are some who were made eunuchs by men, and there are others who were born eunuchs, and there are others who made themselves eunuchs on account of the kingdom of the heavens. But not all accept this.